《英语国家文化》学习指南

 

1. Course Objectives

2. Course Description

3. Teaching Materials

4. Teaching Rate of Progress

5. Teaching Method

6. Performance Evaluation

7. Online Learning System Guide

8. Course Expectations

9. Some Suggestions for Self-Study

 

1. Course Objectives

This course aims to present a whole picture of Great Britain, America, Canada, and Australia by conveying necessary information about the various features, both traditional and modern, of these four countries. Using a wide variety of authentic materials, tasks and media, this course enables you to know about British culture, American culture, Canadian culture, and Australian culture as much as possible. As English majors, a good knowledge of English pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar can’t guarantee proper use of the language because language does not exist in a vacuum but is closely related to culture. Culture is an important part of being able to communicate successfully and appropriately in another language. Without understanding the culture, you will meet with lots of misunderstandings and barriers in intercultural communication. “Language is a reflection of culture, and culture is a reflection of language”. (Larry A. Samovar, 2000) In fact, there is not one aspect of human life that is not touched and altered by culture. Culture is everything and plays a dominant role in our lives. So the main objective of our providing you with such a course is to help you have a more and better understanding of the society and culture of major English-speaking countries so that you could improve your language proficiency and cultural proficiency as well.

It is expected that as a result of this course you will:

● Have a general understanding about major English-speaking countries;

● Be sensitive to the cultural concepts and practices of Britain, America, Canada, and Australia;

● Develop a reflective attitude towards your cultural background;

● Improve your social performance in English cultural settings;

 

 

2. Course Description

We choose the book entitled The Society and Culture of Major English-Speaking Countries: An Introduction as our classroom textbook. By reading this textbook, you can not only have a general understanding about British and American societies and cultures, but also about Canadian society and culture, Australian society and culture, and New Zealand’s society and culture. But if you want to learn this course better, reading only this textbook is not enough. You’d better spend some time after class reading as many books related to British culture and American culture as possible. We’ve already listed for you about 40 reference books concerning British culture and American culture, you can choose some of them to read.

 

3. Teaching Materials

   The editor-in-chief of the textbook is Zhu Yongtao, a famous scholar teaching in Beijing Foreign Studies University. Our teaching materials fall into two books. Book One composed of 18 chapters was compiled by British expert Dr. John Hill and Canadian expert Dr. Ann Rogers. Book Two composed of 18 chapters was compiled by American experts Morton Schagrin and Helen Young, Canadian expert Ann Rogers, and British expert Dr. John Hill, who are all knowledgeable and very familiar with the countries. This textbook is designed to be student-centered and emphasizes that you yourself are the master of your study. In order to help you understand the texts, command English, and take in knowledge, this textbook provides you with detailed and practical notes that involve the historical backgrounds of great events and figures, allusions, and difficult language points, hoping the teacher only plays an instructional role in class. In addition, each chapter has its Focal Points so as to help you have a good mastery of text structure and main idea. And exercises include multiple choice, cloze and explanatory questions. These exercises may not only help you memorize various kinds of information, improve your cultural and linguistic knowledge, but also help you review and sum up what you have already learned. More importantly, at the end of each chapter, some questions for thought are offered so that you could practice your oral English and carry out some intercultural discussions in English as well.

 

4. Teaching Rate of Progress

   The teachers of this course deliver lectures once (two hours) a week for a 17-week term. That is, the teacher spends 34 teaching hours finishing their lectures. Because time is quite limited, the teachers can only explain the relatively importan chapters of each book in class and the rest is left for your self-study after class. The following are our teaching schedule:

 

 

第一部分  英国地理等总体概貌

1、地理简介

2、气候

3、河流湖泊

4、区域划分

5、主要城市

 

第二部分  英国历史

1、早期居民

2、罗马统治时期

3、盎格卢-撒克逊时期

4、丹麦人的入侵

5、诺曼征服

6、诺曼统治

7、大宪章与议会的形成

8、百年战争

9、玫瑰战争

10、宗教改革

11、英国资产阶级革命

12、光荣革命

13、工业革命

14、殖民扩张

15、当代英国

 

第三部分  英国政府与政治制度

1 宪法

2 君主

3 议会

4 政府

5 政党与选举

 

第四部分  英国经济

1、    英国经济的发展简史

2、    目前英国各地区经济的状况

3、    存在的问题等

 

第五部分  英国教育制度

1、介绍英国总体教育体制及发展简史

2、小学、中学到大学等不同阶段的教育状况

3、英国考试制度

4、英国职业教育

5、介绍英国大学——牛津和剑桥

 

第六部分  英国大众传媒

1、英国主要大众传媒----英国的报纸

2、英国报纸的分类、发行、管理与监管

3、英国主要大众传媒----英国的广播与电视

4、英国广播与电视和英国报纸的运行原则与区别

5、英国广播与电视的异同比较、管理与监管

 

第七部分  当代英国生活

1、介绍英国的社会保障体制及住房

2、英国的各项体育运动

3、英国的节假日文化

 

美 国

第一部分  美国概览

1、地理及气候

2、美国诸州及主要城市

3、美国国旗及国歌

4、首都——华盛顿特区

5、自由女神

 

第二部分  美国历史简介

1、美洲大陆的先民

2、美洲大陆的发现

3、北美殖民地

4、英属十三州的建立

5、英属十三州的经济与政治

 

第三部分  美国革命

1、独立战争的引发及原因

2、独立战争的过程简介

3、独立宣言

4、从联盟条款到美国宪法的诞生

5、人权法案

 

第四部分  美国政治制度

1美国的政治体制

2国会

3、总统

4、司法

5、总统选举

6、总统及联邦政府机构

7、联邦政府与州政府

8、政党

 

第五部分  国教育

1、介绍美国总体教育体制及地位

2、美国的义务教育状况

3、美国考试制度

4、美国高等教育

5、介绍美国大学——哈佛和耶鲁

 

第六部分  美国经济、科技及宗教  

1、美国经济概览

2、美国科学与技术简

3、美国宗教概况

4、美国宗教的主要派别

 

加拿大全方位介绍

第一部分   地理与历史、加拿大诸省介绍

第二部分    政治、经济与文化生活

 

澳大利亚全方位介绍

第一部分    地理、澳大利亚诸州介绍

第二部分     历史、 政治、经济与教育

5. Teaching Method

This course is taught in two formats: an interactive lecture and a tutorial. The tutorials cover a wide range of activities, including skill development (using databases, writing essays and presenting research) and knowledge extension. Being a culture course, great emphasis is placed on group work and interaction.

 

6. Performance Evaluation

There are four performance assessment items:

1. Online questions, forum discussions & class participation 10%

2. Homework 10%

3. Midterm 10%

4. Final examination (paper) 70%

We hope that by attending our lectures, you can broaden your horizon; by oral presentation, you can improve your oral English and thinking; by doing homework and doing research, you can be prepared for your graduation thesis and future job.

 

7. Online Learning System Guide

On the campus Internet (CWIS), we’ve already offered you some necessary information such as Course Syllabus, Course PPT, Study Guide and Course Exercises, Course Test Paper, Practice Guide, Demonstrative Teaching Videos, Audial Material, Reference Books and Recommended Networks. Before beginning to study this course, you’d better have some understanding about Course Syllabus, Teaching Plans, and Study Guide so that you could prepare yourself for your study..

 

8. Course Expectations

Class participation is strongly encouraged in this course. As each text that will be learned has real-life applications, class discussion will hinge on participation by all class members. While marks are not earned for participation, your performance in class will contribute to increased understanding of the course materials and information.

Attendance for this course is crucial and important to understanding British culture and American culture. Therefore, it is strongly encouraged that you attend class on a regular basis.

 

9. Some Suggestions for Self-Study

There isn’t a single formula or a secret recipe for the successful study of British culture and American culture. But if you want to become a good learner, diligence is the best policy. At the same time, you should also take it seriously and be an attentive and efficient learner. If you want to have a better understanding of a country’s culture, you should know not only its Popular Culture (including all kinds of habits and customs, rites and rituals, lifestyle and communication behaviors) and High Culture (including politics, law, religion, philosophy, literature, art, music and architecture), but also know its Deep Culture (including values, beliefs, world view, way of thinking and national character). If you know all of these, your intercultural consciousness will be improved a lot. The following are some general, simple but effective methods for your self-study:

Make a study schedule so that you could make the most of your valuable time.

Concentrate, that is, treat studying like a serious business, not something you can do while eating or watching TV at the same time.

Learn how to read. Pay careful attention to passages that are relevant to what you are learning and skip over those that aren’t. Remember that sometimes rereading is necessary if the materials are hard to understand and memorize.

Take good notes. Before writing anything, please divide the page into two parts. The left part is about a third of the page wide; the right, two-thirds. You may write your notes in the wider part, and put down the main ideas on the left. During revision, this is very useful because you can see immediately why the material is   relevant, rather than being worried by a great mass of information.

Consult an English-English dictionary if you meet with some new words which have already influenced your reading. By so doing your vocabulary and reading comprehension will be improved a lot.

Study step by step. Dont be eager for quick success and instant benefit.

Make the most of the Internet. Internet can provide you with lots of valuable information and reference materials concerning this course.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

《英语国家文化》课程习题

习题要求:

为配合教师教学和学生自主学习,我们以考试试卷的形式配备了36套课后练习题,以帮助学生复习、归纳所学内容,从而帮助学生记忆各种信息,巩固和提高文化和语言知识。

英国、澳大利亚、新西兰部分共计18套,美国、加拿大部分共计18套。每套试卷分为: I填空题(Fill the Blanks)II多项选择题(Tick the correct answer in each of the following)III问答题(Questions for Thought)三个部分。

I. Fill the Blanks: 该部分重点考察每章的重点内容, 以填空题的形式出现以使学生掌握更加详尽的关于英语国家文化的背景知识。

II. Tick the correct answer in each of the following该部分重点考察学生对多种信息的的灵活掌握情况,以提高学生对所学内容的综合掌握程度。

IIIQuestions for Thought该部分可供学生进行课上和课外的口语练习或者用英语开展跨文化比较讨论时使用。

所有试题均能够在课本上找到答案,希望学生在学习时能够充分利用这些试题,以便更好地掌握所学英语国家文化的相关知识。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

《英语国家社会与文化入门》(上册)

Chapter 1  Great Britain

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Britain consists of _____ nations, including England,_____, _______ and ______.

2. Britain is a country with a history of invasions. In 43 AD Britain was invaded by_______, in

the late 8th century  they experienced _______ raids from Scandinavia and in the 11th century they suffered invasions from _______

3. The Anglo-Saxons began to settle in Britain in ________ century.

4. The capital of Britain is ______ which has great influence on the UK in all fields

including_______, _______  and _______

5. Charles the First, king of Britain, was executed, because he attempted to _____ in the English Revolution.

6. Name two Scottish cities which have ancient and internationally respected universities:_______ and______.

7. The battle of Bannockburn led by Robert the Bruce succeeded in winning the full

independence of _______

8. Both the Scottish and Welsh people elect their members of parliaments to the London Parliament and each holds_______ and. _______ seats respectively.

9. The capital of Scotland is ______, which is well-known for its natural

10. Although Wales is the smallest of the three nations on the_____ mainland, it's good at getting  _______from abroad, particularly Japan and _____.

II. Tick the correct answer in each of the following:

1. Three of the following are characteristics of London. Which of the four is the exception?

      A. London is a political, economic and cultural centre of the country.

      B. London has a larger population than all other cities in England.

      C. London is not only the largest city in Britain, but also the largest in the world.

      D. London has played a significant role in the economic construction of the country.

2. The Tower of London, a historical sight, located in the centre of London, was built by

      A. King Harold  B. Robin Hood    C. Oliver Cromwell  D. William the Conqueror

3. Who were the ancestors of the English and the founders of England?

      A. the Anglo-Saxons  B. the Romans   C. the Vikings   D. the Romans

4. Which is the largest city in Scotland?

      A. Cardiff    B. Edinburgh    C. Glasgow     D. Manchester

5. Why did the Scottish Kings decide to form an independent singular Scottish state in the

ninth century?

      A. They needed a unified independent nation to fight against Viking raids.

      B. They felt it necessary to develop their own industry.

      C. They were threatened by the Anglo-Saxons' invasion.

      D. They had to do it in order to resist the English.

6. Where do the majority of people in Scotland live?

      A. in the Highlands      B. in the Lowlands

      C. in the Uplands        D. in the west of Scotland

7. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

      A. Wales was invaded by the Romans.

      B. Wales was occupied by the Anglo-Saxons.

      C. Wales was conquered by the Normans.

      D. Wales was threatened by the English.

8. Which of the following parties-in Scotland still wants an independent Scotland?

      A. the Labor Party                B. the Liberal Party

C. the Scottish Nationalist Party     D. the Conservative Party

9. When did Scotland join the Union by agreement of the English and Scottish parliaments?

      A. in 1715      B. in 1688      C. in 1745       D. in 1707

10. Llywelgn ap Gruffudd is more than a simple historical figure for the Welsh. He is almost considered the legendary hero of Welsh nationalism because

      A. he became the first Prince of Wales in 1267.

      B. he brought the English under his control.

      C. he led a historic uprising against the English.

      D. he unified Wales as an independent nation.

III. Questions for Thought

1. "British history has been a history of invasion". Please illustrate this point with: the examples from the text. How did each of the invasions influence English culture ?

2. What are some general characteristics of Scotland ? How did Scotland become part of the union of Great Britain ?

3. Describe characteristics of Wales and Wales' unification with Great Britain.

4. Are there any differences between England, Scotland and Wales in terms of cultural tradition?

 

Chapter 2  Northern Ireland

I. Fill in the blanks:

1.  The Home Rule Bill was finally passed in ______, but the process was overtaken by      and was ______ suspended for the duration of the war.

2.  To pursue Irish independence, the most spectacular event in the Irish history was

   ______of 1916, in which the rebels occupied Dublin's ______ and forced the British to take

it back by______

3.  As Protestants were the majority of the province, they controlled the local ______and used that power ______to support their economic and social ______ in the area. Therefore Catholics in Northern Ireland began______ movement in the 1960s, campaigning for ______

4.  The ______ IRA believed that they had made enough progress so that they could

concentrate on ______, and run candidates for ______.

5.  The ______ IRA separated from the officials, because they felt that ______ was the only way to get the British out.

6.  Threatened by the IRA in the early 1970s, the Protestants formed their own illegal______

    groups and took revenge on______.

7.        In 1971 the Northern Irish government took the action to imprison terrorist suspects from

both sides without______ , a policy known as ______.

8. In the 1980s convicted IRA prisoners started a campaign for the status of being                ______by starving themselves. The British government didn't ______to this demand for political status and ______ prisoners starved to death.

9.  1972 was the worst year of the troubles which included 13 Catholics who had been taking part in a peaceful ______. They were shot dead by ______ . This day has now been mythologized    as ______.

10. A series of big bombs in London in the late 1980s and early 1990 increased ______

   on the British government to come up with ______.

11. Sinn Fein, the legal ______ Party, supports the IRA's right to fight. Its leaders spoke of a twin campaign for union with ______, both political and military, which is known as the policy of ______.

12.  In August 1994, the IRA declared ______ with the efforts made by John Hume, the leader

of _______, and Gerry Adams, the leader of ______.

13.  It's hard to make talks successful between the British and Irish governments without the

participation of ______ and ______.

14.  R.U.C. stands for ______.

II. Tick the correct answer in each of the following:

1. In the seventeenth century, the English government encouraged people from Scotland and Northern England to emigrate to the north of Ireland, because

      A. they wanted to increase its control over Ireland.

B. they had too many people and didn't have enough space for them to live in.

C. they intended to expand their investment.

D. they believed that Ireland was the best place for them.

2. In 1969, the first British soldiers were seen on Northern Ireland Street. They came fast

      A. to maintain traffic order in Northern Ireland.

      B. to protect the Catholic people.

      C. to protect the Protestant people.

      D. to replace the Royal Ulster Constabulary since they were unable to keep social order.

3. Northern Ireland is the smallest of the four nations, but is quite well-known in the world for

      A. its most famous landmark, the "Giant's Causeway".

      B. its rich cultural life.

      C. its low living standards.

D. its endless political problems.

4. Faced with conflicting demands the British government chose a compromise and organized a partition of Ireland, because

 A. the British government wouldn't be able to control Ireland any longer by force.

 B. the British government intended to satisfy both sides ——— Catholics as well as Protestants.

 C. Catholics in Ireland demanded a partition of Ireland.

 D. Protestants welcomed the idea of partition.

5. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

 A. Sinn Fein is the legal political Party in Northern Ireland.

 B. Those who want to unite Northern Ireland with Britain are called Unionists.

 C. Social Democratic and Labor Party is a very important political Party in Britain.

 D. Those who show their loyalty to the British Crown are called Loyalists.

6. In the early 1970s, the IRA

  A. killed many Protestants and Catholics.

  B. burned down the houses of Catholics.

  C. murdered individuals at random.

  D. carried out a series of bombing and shooting and attacked the security forces as their main target.

7. 1972 was the worst year of the political troubles in Northern Ireland, because

  A. 13 Catholics were shot dead by the police.

  B. 468 people were killed in Northern Ireland.

  C. the government carried out a policy known as "internment".

  D. Bloody killing of 468 people fortified Catholic opposition to the British presence

in Northern Ireland.

8. Why did the British government decide to replace the Power-Sharing policy with "direct-rule" from London?

    A. The Power-Sharing policy was not accepted by the majority of Protestants.

    B. The Northern Irish Parliament could not govern the province effectively.

    C. The Power-Sharing policy couldn't be carried out.

    D. All the above.

9. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

   A. In 1981, some convicted IRA prisoners went on a hunger-strike.

   B. They demanded for the status of being "political prisoners" by starving themselves.

   C. Margaret Thatcher's government gave in to their political demand.

   D. The death of prisoners revitalized the political movement of Sinn Fein.

10. How many counties do you know there are in Northern Ireland?

     A. 26      B. 6      C. 32      D. 20

III. Questions for Thought

1. Why is Northern Ireland, according to the author, so significant in the United Kingdom ? What is the political problem there ?

2. What are some of the factors in Irish and English history that affect the situation in Northern Ireland today ?

3. Different parties and groups in the United Kingdom have different solutions to the political problem in Northern Ireland. Please sum up their different attitudes.

4. Has the author offered a solution to the political problem in Northern Ireland ?

 

Chapter 3  The Government of the United Kingdom

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. _______, the ancestor of the present Queen, Elizabeth 11, united England under his rule

in 829.

    2. The doctrine of the "divine right of kings" held that _______, _________

    3. During the civil war in the 17th century, those who represented the interests of Parliament

are called _______ and those who supported the King were called _______

    4. In 1215, some feudal barons and the Church forced King _______ to sign the _______ to

place some limits on the King's power.

    5. In medieval times, kings would summon a group of wealthy barons and representatives of counties, towns and cities--- called _______ to raise money.

    6. In 1689, Parliament passed _______ to ensure that the King would never be able to ignore

     Parliament.

    7. In the 18th century, King George I left the job of chairing cabinet meetings to one of his ministers who later came to be called _______.

    8. In Britain, the official head of state is _______ while the real centre of political life is in ______

    9. The British Constitution consists of _______, _______, and _______.

   10. The most important function of the Parliament is to _______._______,

   11. Strictly speaking, the Parliament today consists of _______, _______

      and _______.

   12. The fund the Queen received to repair the fire damage to ______

caused a lot criticism from the public about the monarchy, and the Queen later decided to open, _______ to summer tourists to raise money.

   13. Life peers should be nominated by _______ and appointed by _______.

   14. According to tradition, most peerages can only be passed through the _______ lines.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

1. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of British government?

  A. It offers the Queen high political status and supreme power.

  B. It is both a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy.

  C. It is the oldest representative democracy in the world.

  D. It has no written form of Constitution.

2. Which of the following king was executed in the civil war?

  A. James I        B. James II      C. Charles I     D. Charles II   

3. What happened in 1215?

  A. It was the year of Norman Conquest in British history.

  B. Forced by barons, King John signed the Magna Cart&

  C. Henry IV granted the Commons the power to review money grants.

  D. King Egbert united England under his rule.   

4. Which of the following is NOT true about the Great Council?

  A. They included barons and representatives from counties and towns.

  B. They were sometimes summoned by the kings to contribute money.

  C. They later developed into what we now know as the Cabinet.

  D. They represented the aristocrats as well as the communities.

5. Under whose reign was the Bill of Rights passed?

  A. James II    B. William of Orange   C. Oliver Cromwell   D. George I

6. Which of the following is NOT true about the Constitution?

  A. It is a document which lists out the basic principles for government.

  B. It is the foundation of British governance today.

  C. Conventions and Laws passed by Parliament are part of the Constitution.

  D. The common laws are part of the Constitution.

7. Which of the following about the Parliament is NOT true?

  A. There are no legal restraints upon Parliament.

  B. Strictly speaking, the Queen is part of the Parliament.

  C. Parliament has the supreme power of passing laws.

  D. Parliament has no power to change the terms of the Constitution.

8. Which of the following about the Queen is NOT true?

  A. The Queen selects the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

  B. The Queen symbolizes the tradition and unity of the British state.

  C. The Queen acts as a confidante to the Prime Minister.

  D. The Queen is the temporal head of the Church of England.

9. Which, of the following about the House of Lords is NOT true?

  A. Lords do not receive salaries and many do not attend Parliament sittings.

   B. It consists of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal.

   C. The lords are expected to represent the interests of the public.

   D. Most of the lords in the House of Lords are males.

10. Which of the following about the House of Commons is NOT true?

 A. Members of Parliament elect the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

B. MPs receive salaries and some other allowances.

C. MPs are expected to represent the interests of the public.

D. Most MPs belong to the major political parties.

III. Questions for Thought

1. What are some of the characteristics of the British constitutional monarchy? How has the English monarchy evolved gradually to the present constitutional monarchy?

2. How did the doctrine of the "divine fight of kings", according to the author, lead to the

English Civil War? What do you know about the causes of the English Revolution in the 17th

century?

3. What is the history of English parliament? What role did the parliament play in the Civil War?

4. Discuss the major characteristics and the main content of the British constitution.

5. Why does the author say that parliament is supreme in the British state? What functions does

parliament have? What role does the Queen ( King ) and the Prime Minister play in British

government?

6. What kind of institution is the House of Lords? What role does it play in British government?

Chapter Four  Politics

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. The UK is divided into _______ constituencies with each of them represented by a member in _________

2. The party which wins the majority seats in parliament forms _______and its party leader becomes _________

3. Normally, a government can be in power for _______ years, and then it has to resign and hold

 a general election.

4. If a government loses a _______ in the House of Commons, it has to resign.

5. The electoral register refers to _______.

6. The amount of time given to each party in the "party electoral broadcasts" is proportional to

the _______ which the party received at the previous election.

7. In order to be fair, the amount of money a candidate can spend in his is strictly limited.

8.        The media conducts  _______ to try to predict the result of the election.

9.        There are three major parties in the UK: _______ _______ and _______.

10. _______  was established by the Labor government in 1948, providing health care for all

   the people.

11. From 1979 to 1997, _______ won 4 consecutive elections and was in power for quite a       long time.

12. _______ is the leader of the Conservative party while _______ is the leader of the

   Labor party.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

1. Which group of people can NOT vote in the general election?

      A. members in the House of Commons      B. Lords in the House of Lords

      C. the UK citizens aboyee the age of 18 D. the UK resident citizens of the Irish Republic

2. By whom is a "vote of no confidence" decided?

     A. the House of Commons               B. the House of Lords

     C. the two major parties                 D. the Prime Minister

3. Which of the following is NOT true about the electoral campaigns?

     A. Big parties can buy time to broadcast their policies on the television.

     B. There is a limit on the amount of money candidates can spend in their constituency

campaign.

     C. Candidates and their supporters go door-to-door persuading voters to vote for them.

     D. Candidates criticize each other's policies to show how good their own policies are.

4. How many seats in the House of Commons should a party hold at least in order to win the election?

     A. 651       B. 326       C. 626               D. 351

5. Which of the following party adopts a "fatherly" sense of obligation to the poorer people in the society?

     A. the Conservative party                B. the Liberal Democrats

     C. the Party of Wales                   D. the Labour party

6. Which of the following description about the Conservative party is NOT true?

     A. It has been in power for an unusually long period of time.

     B. It prefers policies that protect individual's rights.

     C. It receives a lot of the funding from big companies.

     D. It is known as a party of high taxation levels.

7. Which government lost a vote of no confidence and was forced to resign in 1979?

     A. the Conservative government           B. the Liberal government

     C. the Labour government                D. the radical government

8. Which period of time in British history was described as "private affluence and public squalor"?

     A. the 1940s         B. the 1970s    C. the 1980s         D. the 1990s

9. Which of the following about the "poll tax" is NOT true?

     A. It was introduced by the Conservative government.

     B. It was introduced by the Labour government.

     C. It was an attempt to change local government taxes.

     D. It was criticized by many citizens.

10. Who is the leader of the Labour party at present?

     A. John Major     B. Tony Blair    C. Harold Wilson     D. Margaret Thatcher

III. Questions for Thought

1. Who can stand for election as an MP in the UK? Why are small parties and independent candidates powerless in the election campaign for the formation of a government?

2. What are the three big parties in the UK? What are some of the similarities and dissimilarities between the three parties?

3. What are some of the recent political trends in the UK? Are these trends more democratic or undemocratic? What is the author's opinion?

4. The author says that John Major's conservatives remain unpopular in 1997. What reasons does the author give for this political situation?

 

Chapter 5  The UK Economy

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. "The Jewel in the Crown" of the British Empire -- _______ which provided  _______   and a big market for British goods, gained independence in 1947.

  2. A low rate of _______ coupled with a very high rate of _______is a characteristic of the

UK economy.

  3. Since 1945, the UK economy has experienced _______decline rather than_______ decline.

  4. In the 1970s, the devaluation of the UK currency forced the Labour government to borrow

money from _______.

  5. In 1979, the Conservative party under _______came into power and carried out a

programme of _______.

  6. In recent years, Britain is second only to the U.S. as a destination for _______.

  7. The UK economy can be divided into three main sectors: _______ industries, secondary

industries and _______  industries.

8. The beef industry was hit badly by _______ which caused a ban on beef exports in 1996.

  9. Since the discovery of oil and gas under the _______, Britain has gained a strong position

in the offshore oil industry.

  10. Glaxo-Wellcome is the biggest _______ company in the world while _______is the second largest paint manufacturer in the world.

  11. _______ is one of the busiest share-dealing centers in the world.

  12. Englishman Frank Whittle developed the world's first practical _______ in 1937.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

1. Which of the following statements about the UK economy is NOT true?

      A. Britain remains one of the Group of Seven large industrial economies.

      B. Britain has experienced a relative economic decline since t945.

      C. There has been a period of steady decreasing of living standards.

      D. Some smaller economies have overtaken the UK in terms of output per capita.

2. Which of the following was NOT the reason for the relative economic decline since 1945?

      A. Britain did not invest in modern equipment and new products.

      B. Britain spent a high proportion of its national wealth on the military.

      C. Britain had been heavily in debt to finance the war.

      D. Britain had carded out the nationalisation of the businesses.

3. Which of the following livestock has the biggest number in the UK?

      A. beef battle        B. dairy cattle        C. chicken        D. sheep

4. Where is the best agricultural land in Britain?

      A. in the southeast of England

      B. in the northeast of England

      C. in the southeast of Scotland

      D. in the northeast of Scotland

5. Which of the following is NOT a company in the energy sector?

      A. Shell        B. ICI        C. RTZ        D. British Gas

6. Which of the following used to be the last independent car company in the UK?

      A. Ford        B. Peugeo     C. Rover       D. BMW

7. In aerospace industry, which two countries are ahead of Britain?

       A. the U.S. and Germany      B. the U.S. and Russia

       C. Germany and Russia       D. France and Russia

8. Which civil airline was started in 1924 after the First World War?

      A. Imperial Airways           B. British Airways

      C. Hawker-Siddeley Aviation    D. the British Aircraft Corporation

9. What did Frank Whittle do in 1937?

      A. He invented the first jet plane.      B. He developed the fast jet engine.

      C. He made the first powered flight.    D. He made the trans-Atlantic flight.

10. Which company became an important aero-engine manufacturer after WWI?

      A. Boeing                   B. Rolls Royce  

C. McDonnel-Douglas         D. Hawker-Siddeley Aviation

11. British Aerospace was the merger of which two companies?

      A. the British Aircraft Corporation and Hawker-Siddeley Aviation

      B. the British Aircraft Corporation and Rolls Royce

      C. Hawker-Siddeley Aviation and GEC Avionics

      D. Hawker-Siddeley Aviation and Rolls Royce

III. Questions for Thought

1. Please define "absolute decline and relative decline" in the UK economy. How does the author

explain the reasons for the absolute decline and relative decline?

2. What did the Conservative Party under Mrs. Margaret Thatcher promise to do to the UK national economy in 1979? The word "reform' in the national economy was also popular when Mrs. Margaret Thatcher formed the government and decided to change the UK economy. What was her radical reform programme? Was the pragramme successful according to the author?

3. What are the three main areas in national economies? Describe the development of each of the

three areas in the UK economy,

4. The author believes that Britain, like most developed economics, has seen a relatively shrinking of the importance of secondary industry and a spectacular growth in tertiary or service industries. Why is it so? Do you see a similar growth in tertiary industries in China in the past 20 years? How is this growth related to the reform and opening up to the outside world?

 

Chapter 6  British Literature

I Fill in the blanks:

  1. One of the oldest of the early "old English" literary works is called, _______.

  2. _______ is generally regarded as Geoffrey Chaucer's masterpiece.

3. Shakespeare's plays fall into three categories. They are _______, _______ and_______.   4. Name two of the tragedies written by Shakespeare:           and

  5. Charlotte Bronte and Emily Bronte are noted for their novels______ and _______ which

are largely the love stories of a woman for a man.

  6. Charles Dickens and Elizabeth Gaskell are regarded not only as _______ but also as social_______ in the 19th century.

  7. The author of lvanhoe was _______; Doctor Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was done by

_______ ; Charles Dickens  wrote _______ and _______ among many other works.

    

8. Twentieth-century literature can be broadly divided into two stylistic periods: _______and

_______.

  9. Virginia Woolf was one of the most famous writers of the _______ century. Her work was concerned with the individual consciousness, especially the _______consciousness. She sometimes used the technique called _______ in her writing.

 10. The Heart of Darkness was written by __________; the French Lieutenant's Woman was done by _______ and the author of 1984 was _______..

 11. The most famous novel by John Fowles was called _______.

 12. Smiley's People was written by _______.

II. Choose the correct answer form each of the following:

1. Which of the following books is written by Geoffrey Chaucer ?

     A. The Canterbury Tales    B. Beowulf   C. The Ulster Cycle   D. Morte D'Arthur

2. What flourished in Elizabethan age more than any other form of literature ?

     A. Novel      C. Drama        B. Essay       D. Poetry

3. Among the following writers, who was NOT one of the great trio?

     A. Ben Johnson                 C. Geoffrey Chaucer

     B. William Shakespeare           D. Christopher Marlowe

4. Which of the following did NOT belong to Romanticism ?

     A. Keats                       C. Wordsworth

     B. Shelley                      D.E.M.Foster

5. Which of the following is a tragedy written by Shakespeare ?

      A. Dr. Faustus                   C. Frankenstein

      B. Hamlet                       D. Sense and Sensibility

6. Which of the following was the most famous Scottish novelist ?

      A. D.H. Lawrence                C. Robert L. Stevenson

      B. Charles Dickens               D. Walter Scott

7. Several gifted women played a part in 19th-century literature. Which of the following is

an exception ?

      A. Virginia Woolf                C. Jane Austen

      B. Emily Bronte                 D. Charlotte Bronte

8. Which of the following writers was NOT associated with Modernism ?

      A. D.H. Lawrence                C. Charles Dickens

      B. E.M. Forster                  D. Virginia Woolf

9. Which of the following is generally considered to be the masterpiece by Joseph Conrad ?

      A. Sybil                         C. Bleak House

      B. The Heart of Darkness           D. Wuthering Heights

10. Which of the following was a Postmodernist writer ?

       A. George Orwell                C. Jane Austen

       B. Robert L. Stevenson            D. Virginia Woolf

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What are some of the characteristics of the early writing in English Literature?

2.       Why do you think Geoffrey Chaucer was so significant in English Literature?

3.       Why do you think that the legend of King Arthur was so popular in the early writing of English Literature? Can you fred a similar example in early Chinese Literature?

4. What are some main features of Elizabethan Drama? Who was the best known figure in lizabethan Drama? What were some of the major works done by him? Can you retell one of the stories from his plays?

 

Chapter 7  Sports in Britain

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. _______ is a rough, fast game which was invented in Britain while _______ is a more

gentle sport which owes its origins to the Church.

    2. The FA Cup stands for _______.

3. Each year, the best tennis players in the world gather at. _______to compete for the

championship.

    4. Phrases like "on a sticky wicket" and "playing with a straight bat" are associated with the sport of _______.

5. The game of golf was invented by the  _______ and there is one ancient and famous

golf course at _______.

    6. There are two kinds of horse racing: _______and _______.

7. People usually dress up and show off their fashionable clothes and elaborate hats for the

social event called _______.

    8. _______is a sport involves riding skills as well as speed.

9. _______ are people of extremist animal rights groups who will try every possible

  means to prevent the hunt from proceeding.

   10. Many British people like to participate in the popular sport of fishing, which is

sometimes called _______

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

    1. Which of the following was NOT an activity in Shakespeare' s time?

      A. playing football

      B. having a drink at the pub

      C. working the land

      D. attending the Grand National

    2. Which of the following sports was not invented in Britain?

      A. football

      B. tennis

      C. archery

      D. cricket

    3. Which of the following is NOT true about football in Britain?

      A. Millions of people attend the FA games each season.

      B. "Football hooligans" sometimes have violent clashes.

      C. It was invented by Scottish people.

      D. It was once described as "beastly" violent.

    4. Where is the international tennis championships held?

      A. Wembley

      B. Wimbledon

      C. St Andrews

      D. Clapham

    5. Which of the following was the first team sport to have organized rules?

      A. football

      B. cricket

      C. horse racing

      D. tennis

    6. Which of the following is NOT true about cricket in Britain?

      A. It is now still a snobbish game played by aristocratic people.

      B. Its rules are rather obscure.

      C. The matches last for a few days.

      D. The players appear to be quite formally dressed.

    7. Which of the following members from the royal family enjoys equestrianism?

      A. Mary Queen of Scotland

      B. the Queen

      C. "Fergie"

      D. Princess Anne

    8. Which of the following is truly a sport of the royal family?

      A. cricket

      B. skiing

      C. golfing

      D. horse racing

    9. Which of the following ,is NOT associated .with horse racing?

       A. placing bets

       B. the Royal Ascot

       C. the Grand National

       D. the FA Cup

    10. Which of the following about hunting is NOT true?

       A. It had developed into a recreational activity in medieval England.

       B. Only men participated in the hunting.

       C. Modem hunters usually chase foxes nowadays.

       D. It is strongly objected by animal rights groups.

III. Questions for Thought

1. What has influenced British sports? Please pick up some examples from the text to demonstrate that the Christian church has greatly influenced the sports and leisure activities of  the British.

2. What are some of the major differences and similarities between the British and Chinese attitudes towards sports? What are some of the changes that have take place recently in the Chinese attitude towards sports? How do you account for these changes?.

3. What is the origin of football? Why do you think people in Britain like watching football matches? How is the violence of "football hooligans" related to the British history of football?

4. Why does the author say that tennis literally owes its origins to the Church?

5. Why is cricket very English? Why does the author believe that cricket was associated with a set of English moral values? The author says that "the idea of 'fair play' characterized the British government". Do you agree with the author? Please comment on the author's statement?

 

Chapter 8  British Holidays and Festivals

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Most of the world' s religions are practiced in present-day Britain. There are quite large

communities of Hindu, _______,_______ and Sikh and numerous smaller groups.

  2. Christmas commemorates _______, while _______ commemorates the crucifixion and

resurrection of Jesus Christ.

  3. _______ is a comical musical play enjoyed by adults and children during Christmas time. It has two main characters: _______  and _______

4. Traditionally, people gave Christmas gifts or money to their staff or servants

on _______ , which is the _______ day after Christmas.

  5. Many Muslims in Britain observe a traditional Islamic festival called _______, during which nothing can be eaten or drunk between dawn and nightfall.

  6. Overseas Chinese community in Britain often celebrates Chinese New Year with ______, fireworks, parades and family celebrations.

  7. On the second Saturday in June, the Queen's birthday is officially celebrated by _______

    around _______ in London.

  8. The Bonfire Night, which is celebrated in. November, sometimes is also called _______.

  9. _______, affectionately known as King Billy, defeated the Catholic King at the Battle of_______ in 1690.

  10. On _______ each year, Protestant "Orangemen" march through the streets, celebrating their victory over the Catholics.

  11. On March 17 each year, northern Irish Catholics celebrate the birthday of _______, St Patrik who is said to use shamrock to explain the Christian _______ to the pagan Irish.

  12. One widely practised custom on Scottish Hogmanay is _______.

  13. Scottish people celebrate the birthday of their national poet by holding a _______; and the

 Welsh festival of music-making and poetry writing is called. _______.

  14. Communion with the dead, mischief, fortune-telling and masquerades are common practices on _______.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

    1. Which one of the following is NOT particularly British Christmas tradition?

      A. enjoying the Pantomime

      B. the Queen broadcasting her Christmas message

      C. receiving gifts from Santa Claus

      D. shopping on the Boxing Day

    2. Which of the following has nothing to do with Easter?

      A. rabbits

      B. haggis

      C. chicks

      D. eggs

    3. Which community observes the traditional Ramadan?

      A. Hindu

      B. Sikh

      C. Jewish

      D. Muslim

    4. Which celebration particularly happens on the Queen's birthday?

      A. bonfires

      B. the Orange March

      C. Trooping the Color

      D. masquerades

    5. Which of the following is true about the Guy Fawkes Night?

      A. It is celebrated by Scottish people in November.

      B. It is celebrated by English people in November.

      C. It is celebrated by Scottish people in August.

      D. It is celebrated by English people in August.

    6. Which of the following is true about the Gunpowder Plot?

      A. It was planned to kill the Protestant king and replace him with a Catholic king.

      B. It was planned to kill the Catholic king and replace him with a Protestant king.

       C. It was planned to kill King Billy and replace him with King James II.

       D. It was planned to kill King James II and replace him with King Billy.

     7. Which of the following commemorates the Battle of Boyne?

       A. the Bonfire Night celebration in Lewes

       B. Trooping the Colour in London

       C. the Eisteddfod in Wales

       D. the Orange March in Northern Ireland

     8 Which of the following is NOT true about St Patrick?

       A. He was once made a slave in Ireland.

       B. He brought Christianity to Ireland.

       C. He drove snakes out of Ireland.

       D. He was a druid.

     9. Which of the following is the widely practised custom in Scottish New Year?

       A. first-footing

       B. kissing under the mistletoe

       C. Bums Supper

       D. using magic spells to see into future

    10. Of which people is Robert Bums a national poet?

       A. Welsh people

       B. Irish people

       C. Scottish people

       D. English people

    11. On which day is Halloween celebrated?

       A. 5 November

       B. 31 October

       C. 17 March

       D. 25 December

    12. Which of the following is NOT true about the Eisteddfod?

       A. The highlight is the crowning of the two bards.

       B. It is the largest popular festival of music-making and poetry writing in Europe.

       C. "Address to a Haggis" is recited.

       D. Competitions are held to find the best choirs, translators, essayists and poets.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Christmas is the biggest and best-loved British holiday. How do the British celebrate this holiday? In what way does this holiday and the ways of celebration in Britain reflect western cultural traditions in general and British traditions in particular? What is the biggest and best-loved holiday in China? Are there any similarities or differences between the Chinese people celebrating the biggest and best-loved holiday and the British celebrating Christmas?

2.       How do the British celebrate the Queen's Birthday? What is the origin of this holiday?

3. Bonfire Night is one truly English holiday. How and why do the English celebrate this holiday?

3.       How do the Protestants and Catholics celebrate their own holidays in Northern Ireland? What traditions are behind their celebrations?

4.       How is Hogmanay celebrated in Scotland? What other festivals are celebrated in Scotland?

5.       In what way are the Welsh people different from England, Scotland and Northern Ireland in

 celebrating their holidays?

 

Chapter 9  British Education System

I. Fill in the blanks:

    1. The two oldest universities in Britain are_______ and _______.

    2. Two famous public schools in England are _______ and _______.

    3. Children in Britain must receive a full-time education legally from the age of _______to_______

    4. Pupils from the age of _______  to _______ mainly attend state-ran  schools.

    5. Students attend _______schools from the age of 11 up to around the age of _______.

    6. Parents can choose between sending their children to _______ schools or _______schools.

    7. Parents from the wealthier middle class prefer to send their children to schools so as to have better _______

    8. Comprehensive schools provide a _______ education, teaching students everything from _______ subjects like literature and science to more _______ subjects like cooking and carpentry.

    9. Name two of the four Scottish Universities dating from the 14th and 15113 centuries: _______ and _______

   10. In Britain, people can go to the _______without having any formal educational qualifications.

   11. GCSE stands for _______.

   12. GCEA stands for _______.

   13. GNVQs stands for  _______.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

    1. In Britain, the great majority of parents send their children to

      A. private schools.             C. state schools.

B. independent schools.         D. public schools.

2. In Britain, children from the age of 5 to 16

      A. can legally receive partly free education.

      B. can legally receive completely free education.

      C. can not receive free education at all.

D. can not receive free education if their parents are rich.

3. If a student wants to go to university in Britain, he will take the examination called

      A. General Certificate of Education--Advanced.

      B. General Certificate of Secondary Education.

      C. the common entrance examination.

D. General National Vocational Qualifications.

4. Which of the following is a privately funded university in Britain ?

      A. The University of Cambridge.

      B. The University of Oxford.

      C. The University of Edinburgh.

D. The University of Buckingham

5. Which of the following is NOT true ?

      A. Parents send their children to public schools because they are rich.

      B. Parents send their children to public schools because their children can get better jobs when they leave school.

      C. Parents send their children to public schools because their children can have a better chance of getting into a good university.

D. Parents send their children to public schools because their children prefer to go to public schools.

6. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Open University ?

      A. It's open to everybody.

      B. It requires no formal educational qualifications.

      C. No university degree is awarded.

      D. University courses are followed through TV, radio, correspondence, oct.

7. In the examination called "the 11 plus", students with academic potential go to

      A. grammar schools.

      B. comprehensive schools.

      C. public schools.

      D. technical schools.

8. Which of the following is NOT included in the National Curriculum ?

      A. Children must study the subjects like English, mathematics, science and so on.

      B. Children must sit in A-level exams.

      C. Children must pass national tests.

      D. Teachers must teach what they are told.

9. Which of the following is NOT true about the British education system ?

      A. It's run by the state.

      B. It's funded by the state.

      C. It's supervised by the state.

D. It's dominated by the state.

10. Which of the following schools would admit children without reference to their academic abilities

     A. Comprehensive schools.    B. Secondary schools.

     C. Independent schools.       D. Grammar schools.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What axe the purposes of the British education system? Please comment on these purposes. What are the main purposes of the Chinese education system ? Are there any differences or similarities in the education of the two nations?

2.       How does the British education system reflect social class?

3. What are the major changes that have taken place since World War II? Is British education moving towards more PROGRESS or more equality? Pick up some examples from the text to illustrate your points.

4. Why does the author say that universities in Britain have been rather elitist?

5. What is the Open University in Britain? What do you think of this system?

 

Chapter 10  British Society: Housing, Class and Race

I. Fill in the Blanks:

   1. Like the housing system in the US and the wealthy English-speaking commonwealth, the UK has a very high proportion of _______ , which means that the people own the house they live in.

   2. Banks finance people to buy their own home through loans or _______ paid back over a period of 25 years.

   3. In ascending order of cost and status, the four main types of British home are _______, _______,_______  and _______.

   4. The "semis" and the semi-detached houses are usually found in _______ areas; while the terraced houses are most commonly seen in _______ areas.

   5. Manual (or _______) workers would usually call themselves working-class; while office ( or _______ ) workers would call themselves middle-class.

   6. People who do unskilled office-work and skilled well-paid manual work are likely to be described as_______ class.

   7. A university teacher would most probably read a newspaper like _______ while a manual worker would probably read _______.

   8. _______ is the name used particularly to refer to the top two universities in Britain: Cambridge and Oxford.

   9. One distinctive feature about the class system in Britain is that it still retains a _______.

10. Most of the recent immigrants come from South Asian countries such as _______, Pakistan and Sri Lanka; and _______ countries such as Jamaica and Trinidad.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

    1. Which of the following about the housing system in the UK is NOT true?

      A. About 65% of the homes are owned by the people who live in them.

      B. Banks finance people to buy the houses through loans and mortgage.

      C. Most British people would like to buy their own home,

      D. There is no public housing system in the UK.

    2. Which of the following is true under Thatcher’s administration?

      A. The proportion of owner-occupation decreased.

      B. Public housing became more important.

      C. Many public houses were sold to the people.

      D, The UK became more European-like in its housing arrangements.

    3. Which of the following is NOT true about the "flats"?

      A. They are not considered as the most desirable home.

      B. They are often in modem multistory buildings.

      C. They are often publicly owned,

      D. All of them are of low status and are very cheap.

    4. Which of the following about the terraced houses is NOT true?

      A. They are most common in suburban areas,

      B. They are usually two-storey houses joined at each side.

      C. They often have a small concrete yard at the back.

      D. They were originally built for factory workers.

    5, Which of the following about the "semis" is true?

     A. They usually have gardens at all side.

     B. They normally stand together in pairs.

     C. They are usually located in fashionable areas in the city.

     D. They are considered as the most desirable home by British people.

   6. Which of the following about class system in the UK is NOT true?

     A. People of different classes tend to read different kinds of newspaper.

     B. Class-division is only decided by people's income.

     C. Though social advancement is possible, class affects a person's life-chances.

     D. The way people speak identifies themselves to particular class.

   7. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the hereditary aristocracy in the UK?

     A. The noble titles can b~ inherited by the children.

     B. They usually own historic houses in the country.

     C. They are the richest group of people in the UK.

     D. The senior members can be lords in the House of Lords.

   8. Which of the following is NOT true about life peers?

     A. They are not from the aristocratic families.

     B. They cannot sit in the House of Lords.

     C. They earned their titles through their outstanding achievement.

     D. The rifles cannot be inherited by their children.

   9. Which of the following is NOT an effect of the immigration on the British society?

     A. There are now a varied cuisine for people to choose.

     B. Class tension has been increased.

     C. New forms of popular music have emerged.

     D. Different religious beliefs have been practiced actively.

  10. Which of the following is NOT a true description of the situation of the ethnic minorities

in the UK?

     A. They are well-represented in the British parliament.

     B. They are economically poorer than the white population.

     C. They are treated unfairly by the justice system.

     D. They are threatened by some racist groups.

III. Questions for Thought

1. Why does the author say that "the way the living arrangements of a society as a whole are organized tells us something about that society"? How does the housing in Britain reflect British society? Do you think it is also true in China? Use the changes that have taken place in the housing in your hometown to support your points.

2. What are the four main types of home in Britain? How do they reflect the cost and status of homes? What are some of the major types of home in China?

3. How are people in the UK divided into different classes? What are some of the main features in the division? Is the class system similar with the United States?

4. What are some of the positive and negative effects of non-white immigrants on British society according to the author? What is the general situation of racial relations in the UK?

 

Chapter 11  British Foreign Relations

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Britain had many colonies in its _______ prime. Name two of the colonies which still looked to Britain as the centre of their political and cultural world: _______and _______.

  2. When the Second World War was over, Britain was active in _______ the United Nations and became one of _______ permanent members of _______.

  3. The present foreign policy of Britain is greatly influenced by its _______history and also by

its _______.

  4. Britain' s special relationship with _______is another major factor which _______ the British foreign policy.

  5. Britain's physical isolation has long been reduced by the development of _______ and more recently by the opening of _______, which links Britain to continental _______.

  6. The general direction of Britain's foreign policy is decided by _______  and _______.

  7. The main government department such as _______also involves in making Britain's        foreign policy.

  8. According to the author, Britain is a _______democracy, so the government's foreign policy

in theory represents the desires of its _______.

  9. The Commonwealth was believed to be set up as _______ for continued cooperation and as

a sort of support _______.

  10. There are  _______ members of the Commonwealth including _______ countries as well as_______ industrial countries.

11.   Britain spends more money on _______than most other developed nations and it is                largest spender in the world and is ranked _______ in terms of its military power.

  12. Britain is a member of _______ "club", maintaining an extensive nuclear capability which makes it a little _______ brother to the nuclear _______.

  13. As an outpost of an American-controlled military _______, Britain hosts a large American military _______ as well as the NATO

  14. Since Britain is a traditional sea power, it's not surprising that Britain has three or four nuclear-armed _______

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following :

 1. The author holds that Britain had a big influence on the postwar international order because

   A. it used to be a great imperial power.

   B. it had a strong military power and prestige.

   C. it defeated Hitler' s army.

   D. it got support from its former colonies.

 2. Which countries are the permanent members of the UN Security Council?

   A. France, China, Germany, Russia and Britain.

   B. the United States, France, Britain, Germany and Russia.

   C. China, Russia, France, Britain and the United States.

   D. China, Britain, France, United States and Japan.

 3. In its imperial prime, Britain ruled

   A. a fourth of the globe.             B. a fifth of the world.

   C. a third of the world.              D. two-thirds of the earth.

 4. The present British foreign policy is mainly influenced by the following factors except

   A. its imperial history.

   B. its geopolitical traits.

   C. its special relationship with the United States.

   D. its schizophrenic attitude to Europe.

 5. Which of the following is NOT involved in making the British foreign policy?

   A. The Queen of Britain.

   B. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

   C. The Prime Minister and Cabinet.

   D. The Ministry of Defence and the Treasury.

 6. Nowadays the British foreign policy is largely shaped by its participation in

   A. the Commonwealth.

   B. the European Economic Community.

   C. the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, etc.

   D. a European federal government.

 7. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

   A. Britain hosts a large American military force.

   B. There are 63 American military bases in Britain.

   C. 63 American military bases are under the command of Britain.

   D. Britain is an outpost of an American-dominated military bloc.

 8. Which of the following countries does NOT have nuclear weapons capabilities?

   A. Britain                        C. Italy

   B. the United States                D. Russia

 9. Three of the following factors have contributed to a certain degree of Britain's special relationship with the United States. Which is the exception?

    A. Britain and the United States share the general ideas in many respects.

    B. They have common interests in every respect.

    C. They agree generally on how the world economy should be managed.

D. They have special links in culture.

10. Britain has its nuclear naval force since

   A. it's one of the developed countries in the world.

   B. it's a traditional sea power.

   C. it has an advanced industry.

   D. it's able to produce submarines.

III. Questions for Thought

1.  What and how did the British empire end ? How did the British react to this reality ? How did the end of British imperialism influence the psychology of the British and the making of Britain's foreign policy ?

2.  What are the foundations of Britain's foreign policy ?

3.       How is Britain's foreign policy made ? Does the government's foreign policy represent the desires of British citizens ?

4.       Why does the author say that the decision to join the EC was and remains controversial in Britain?

5.  Why does the author think that Britain has the "special relationship" with the United States ? Does this relationship still exist ?

6.  what was the purpose of establishing the NATO in the author' s opinion ? Do you agree ?

 

Chapter 12  British Media

I. Fill in the blanks:

   1. Britain's three most popular activities are _______,  _______ and _______.

   2. Britain has one of the world's oldest established _______ industries. The Observer, which

appeared in 1791, is the world's oldest _______ newspaper, while The Times, which

began publishing in 1785, is Britain's oldest newspaper.

   3. There are _______ different daily national newspapers. Name two of them which are quite well-known in Britain as well as in the world: _______.and _______.

   4. The _______ press carry more serious and  _______articles of particular political and

social importance. They are generally read by _______audience.

   5. _______ is regarded as one of the quality papers in Britain.

   6. The other category of national newspapers is_______ which are often called_______ press.

   7. Officially speaking the British newspapers are free from government _______and _______ and can print what they like, but many British laws _______ the freedom of newspapers.

   8. The BBC stands for_______. It's not only Britain's main public service _______, but also serves as _______station.

   9.  The BBC has _______channels. BBC 1 entertains people with sports, drama, current affairs,  BBC 2 provides _______ with documentaries and shows.

   10. The most left wing of quality newspapers is _______ whose readers show their interest in

_______ and in society and _______.

   11. The News of the World, which began publishing as a _______ in 1843, is considered as

one of _______.

   12. _______ about business is not only printed at home but also printed in other countries of the world.

   13.  The media are also affected by _______ a legal act which demands that all government information is kept unless the government agrees.

   14. The media have many _______. They provide people with _______ about political and social problems. They carry advertising and also play an important role in _______.

II. Choose the correct answer from each of the following:

    1. Which of the following is the world's oldest national newspaper ?

      A. The Times.                   C. The Observer.

      B. The Guardian.                 D. The Financial Times.

    2. Which of the following is the British oldest daily newspaper ?

      A. The Telegraph.                 C. The News of the World.

      B. The Guardian.                  D. The Times.

3. The British media have many important functions. Which of the following is an

exception ?

      A. They supply people with news, keeping them informed about what is happening in

the world.

      B. They make huge profit by publishing advertisements.

      C. They promote culture and education.

      D. They provide entertainment.

   4. A free press is considered very important to the functioning of parliamentary democracy because

      A. it plays a watchdog function, keeping an eye on the government.

      B. it informs people about current affairs in the world.

      C. it provides people with subjective reports.

      D. it publishes short pamphlets for Parliament.

   5. In Britain most advertising is carded

      A. in newspapers.                 C. in magazines.

      B. on television.                   D. on radio.

   6. Which of the following about the BBC is NOT true ?

     A. There is no advertising on any of the BBC programmes.

     B. The BBC is funded by license fees paid by people who possess television receiving

sets.

     C. The BBC has four television channels.

     D. The BBC provides the World Service throughout the world.

   7. How many newspapers are there in Britain ?

     A. 10                            C. 150

     B. 1400                          D. 270

   8. Which of the following newspapers is printed internationally ?

     A. The tabloids.                  C. The Financial Times.

     B. The News of the World          D. The Observer.

   9. Which of the following is a quality paper ?

     A. The News of the World.         C. The Tabloids.

     B. The Guardian.                 D. All of the above.

  10. Which of the following about the tabloids is NOT true ?

     A. They are big format newspapers.

     B. They are often called ,'the gutter press".

     C. They mainly deal in scandals and gossip about famous people.

     D. They carry stories with color photos and catchy headlines.

III. Questions for Thought

1. The author says that "the media are central to British leisure culture", why does the author say so ? What are some of the similarities and differences in terms of the function between the British media and the Chinese media ?

1.       What are some of the characteristics of British newspaper culture? In what way is it different from the United States ?

3. Is the British press free from the government control and censorship? What is the relationship between the British press and politics or business ?

4. How does the BBC operate ? How is it different from American broadcasting systems ?

 

澳大利亚

Chapter 13  Land, People and History

I. Fill in the blanks

  1. Australia, as the World's _______ continent and . _______island, has a population which is_______ in relation to its size.

  2. The flag of Australia is consisted of three parts: the _______ is the symbol of Australia's historical link with _______; the seven-pointed star under the Union Jack represents the_______ and the _______; and the _______ formed by the five stars on the right is the dominant feature of the night sky in the southern hemisphere.

3. Until 1984, _______ had been Australia's national anthem. Then _______ a song adapted from a late 19th century patriotic song of the same name, was used to replace it as the national anthem.

4. _______ is the official language by _______ though it differs in terms of colloquialisms and slang and accent from other forms of English.

  5. Geologically, Australia can be divided into three parts: _______ , which is also know as the_______ , and which runs almost parallel to the eastern coast from northern        Queens land to southern Tasmania; the _______, which extends from the Gulf of Carpentries in the north to _______ and the western Victorian coast; and the Great        Western Plateau, which covers most of _______, much of the _______                        and South Australia, and part of _______.

6.  Australia has a population of about _______, most of which concentrates in cities along the southeastern comer of the country, as the vast areas in the center of the continent are _______ or _______unsuitable for _______. In fact, Australia has the among the continents and as a result it is the driest inhabited continent in the world.

  7. Australia is one of the most highly _______ countries in the world with only 15 per cent of Australians live in rural areas.

  8. Australia is a country of immigrants. The first immigrants were _______ transported from England in _______.  Since then, especially after the W.W.II, immigrants from all parts of the world have come to settle down in Australia, bringing with them their own cultures and helping to transform Australia into a _______ society.

 9. The _______ were the first inhabitants of Australia. They have lived on the continent for 40 000 to 60 000 years. They lived on _______ and _______. Their lives were strictly governed by laws and observances handed down from the _______.

 10. Though Captain _______found and charted the eastern coast of Australia in 1770, it was

not until _______ that Britain sent its fast fleet to colonize the land. The eleven ships reached Sydney on _______ which later became the national day of Australia.

11. The experiments in breeding _______laid the foundation of Australia' s economic development.

12.   On _______the six colonies, namely NSW, Victoria, Queens land, _______, _______ and Tasmania, joined into a federation to form a new nation -- the Commonwealth of Australia.

13.   By tradition, _______, _____  and _______ are widely regarded as Australian

  national flora, faunal and bird emblems.

14.   _______ and _______ became the national colors formally in 1984.

II. Choose the correct answer from each group:

    1. Which of the following phrases cannot be used to describe the continent of Australia?

      A. the smallest continent

      B. the largest island

      C. the highest continent

      D. the driest continent

    2. The first European settlement on the continent began in

      A. 1901         B. 1788        C. 1770         D. 1787

    3. The sharp increase in Australian population after W.W.II was partly because

       A. a large postwar immigration program was carried out.

       B. the Aboriginal people and the Torres Strait Islanders were not included in the census before W.W.II.

       C. more British convicts were transported to Australia.

       D. Australian soldiers came back from the War.

     4. The Australian national day is set on January 26 to commemorate

       A. the founding of the Commonwealth of Australia.

       B. the discovery of the great southern 'unknown land'.

       C. the first European settlement of the continent.

       D. Captain James Cook s first voyage around Australia.

     5. Australia is divided into three geological parts. They are:

       A. the Great Dividing Range, NSW, and Tasmania.

       B. the Australian Alps, the Great Dividing Range and Western Australia.

       C. Northern Territory, South Australia and Tasmania.

       D. the Great Western Plateau, the Central Eastern Lowlands and the Eastern Highlands.

      6. The European settlement _______ Aboriginal culture and society.

        A. devastated           B. promoted the development of

        C. had no effect on       D. brought prosperity to

      7. In 1787, Britain decided to colonize Australia because

        A. Captain Cook's account of his discovery was not interesting.

        B. Britain wanted to control the gold mines in Australia.

        C. Australia was an attractive place to English people.

        D. Britain needed new places to transport its criminals.

     8. Convict transportation to the mainland of Australia ended in

        A. 1840.     B. 1855.     C. 1851.      D. 1901.

     9. The Commonwealth of Australia, a federation of the six former colonies as states, came into being on

       A. Jan. 18, 1788.   B. Jan. 26, 1788.   C. Jan.1, 1901.  D. April 25, 1914.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What are some of the general characteristics of Australia in terms of land, people and culture?

2.       What are the main structural features of Australia?

3.  Discuss the climate in Australia. What are some of the major differences between Australia and China in terms of the climate?

4.  Why does the author say that Australia is a multicultural society? What are some of the similarities and dissimilarities between China and Australia in this respect?

5.  What is the historical link with Britain in Australian culture? Illustrate the point with four or five examples from the text?

6.  How did England colonize Australia?

7.  Discuss the founding of the Commonwealth of Australia?

8.  What effects did European colonization have on Australian Aboriginal people and their culture?

 

Chapter 14  The Political Life in Australia

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. Australia has _______states, _______.internal territories and _______ external territories. The  internal  territories are _______, _______ and the Jervis Bay Territory.

2. The smallest state is _______, an _______ in the southeast comer of Australia. It is also the _______  island in Australia.   

3. The Australia's government system and practices follow the Western political tradition, especially those of _______ and _______.                   

    4. There are _______ in the Australian government system.  The first tier is_______. All matters of national interests are the responsibility of the first tier. The second tier is _______. The third tier is _______.

    5. The Constitution, which came into force in _______, can only be changed by _______.

    6. The federal parliament is consisted of two parts: _______ , which is also called _______and _______ , which is also called _______There are 148 seats in  _______ . They are allocated to each state according to the size of its _______.

7. The largest political parties in Australia are _______, _______, _______, and _______

II. Choose the correct answer from each group:

   1. The largest state in terms of population is

     A. Queens land.

     B. New South Wales.

     C. Western Australia.

     D. Victoria.

   2. The largest state in terms of area is

     A. Queens land.

     B. New South Wales.

     C. Western Australia.

     D. Victoria.

   3. The state that had the first British settlement is

     A. Queens land.

     B. New South Wales.

     C. Western Australia.

     D. Victoria.

   4. Australia also has external territories in

     A. the Arctic Ocean and the Indian Ocean.

     B. the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean.

     C. the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean,

     D. the Indian Ocean and the Antarctic.

   5. The three-tier system of the government in the Australian federation stands for

     A. the Australian Parliament and Government, the six state governments and their legislatures and the local government bodies at the city, town, municipal and shire level.

     B. the Australian Parliament, the federal government and the Executive Council.

     C. the Governor-General as the representative of the Queen, the Prime Minister heading the Australian government and the ministers each heading a ministry.

     D. the Australian government, the six states governments and the territories governments.

   6. Which of the following sentences about the Governor-General of Australia is NOT true?

     A. The Governor-General is the commander of the armed forces in Australia.

     B. The Governor-General can act without consulting the government.

     C. The Governor-General is the representative of the British Queen who is formally the

Queen of Australia, too.

     D. One of the duties of the Governor-General is to summon, prorogue and dissolve

parliament.

   7. The federal government and the state governments are formed by

      A. the party chosen by the Governor-General.

      B. the party that has the most votes.

      C. the party that has the majority of the House of Representatives.

      D. the party that has the majority of the Senate.

  8. Which of the following states has a one-chamber parliament?

      A. Victoria                     B. South Australian

      C. Western Australia             D, Queensland

  9. Which of the following was first adopted in Australia?

      A. The three-tier government system.

      B. Secret Ballots.

      C. The two-chamber parliament.

      D. The public services.

  10. _______ is Australia's largest trading partner.

      A. China                      B. ASEAN countries

      C. Britain                     D. Japan

   11. In which of the following areas Australia and America have disagreements?

      A. Trade policies.

      B. American military presence in the Asian and Pacific region.

      C. Establishing diplomatic relations with P. R. China.

      D. Australia's membership in the UN Security Council.

   12. Diplomatic relations between Australia and China was established in

      A. in the 1950s.                  B. in the 1960s.

      C. in the 1970s.                  D. in the 1980s.

III. Questions for Thought

1. What are the six states of Australia? What are some of the major similarities or differences in terms of population, early settlement and economy in the six states?

2. The author states that "Australia' s political institutions and practices follow the Western democratic tradition, reflecting British and North American experience". Pick up some examples from the text to support this point.

3. Can you point out some main differences between the Australian government system and the British government system?

4. Why do you think Australia is more and more aware of the importance of the politically, economically and strategically significant countries of Asia and the South Pacific?

 

Chapter 15  The Economy

I. Fill in the blanks:

1.       Nearly 50 years ago, the Australian economy depended heavily on _______. Today, the Australian economy is more _______, _______and _______ generates two-thirds of its production.

2.       The Prices and Incomes Accord agreement was signed between _______ and _______. Its aim was to solve the dual problems of _______ and _______.

  3. Australia is a key supplier of a lot of agricultural products in the world market, including_______, _______, _______ and _______

  4. The major changes in the pattern of Australian international trade include a_______ in the

rural sector's share of total exports and an increase in the share of____, _______, _______and _______sector; a _______as a trading partner and _______; diversification of _______ and _______.

  5. Britain's importance as a trading partner has declined mainly because _______ and _______ thus bought less Australian products.

6. As the driest continent in the world, _______ is the major limitation to the development of Australian agriculture.

  7. Australia, as the world' s _______ of wool, exports most of its wool production. The nigh        quality wool mainly comes from the _______ breed of sheep.

II. Choose the correct answer from each group:

    1. Which of the following organizations Australia is NOT a member of?.

      A. The European Community

      B. The United Nations

      C. The General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade

      D. The Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations trade agreement

    2. The rapid expansion of secondary industry was brought about by

      A. the increase in wool production.

      B. the demands of World War II and a strong post-war immigration program.

      C. the decline in the current account deficit.

      D. the growth of its overseas markets.

    3. The aim of the Prices and Incomes Accord agreement was to

      A. fix the wage regardless of the change in price.

      B. fix the price at a certain level through a centralized system.

      C. further decrease the current account deficit

D. to tackle the dual problems of high unemployment and inflation.

4. The two important reasons for the decline of the rural sector's share of the export market are

A. infertile soils and lack of water for irrigation.                  

B. diversification of products and the expansion of export markets.

      C. the growing importance of Japan as a trading partner and the decline in that of Britain's.

      D. its dependence on the British market and a decline in wool’s  share of the textile market.

5. Since the early 1960s,  _______ has grown to be Australia's largest trading partner.

  A. Britain.                 B. the European Community

    C. Japan                   D. China

 6. Which of the following statement is NOT correct?

     A. Australia is the world's largest producer and exporter of alumina.

     B. Australia is the world's largest producer and exporter of bauxite.

     C. Australia is the world's largest exporter of coal.

     D. Australia is the world's major exporter of uranium.

7. Which of the following statements is correct?

     A. Australia is the world's largest producer and exporter of wool.

     B. Australia is the world's largest exporter of agricultural products.

     C. Australia is the world's largest producer and exporter of sugar.

     D. Australia is the world's largest producer and exporter of dairy products.

 8. Which country/area is Australia's largest export market for beef and veal?

     A. Singapore.  B. The United States.  C. The Republic of Korea.  D. The Middle East.

 9. Australia's three most important field crops are

    A. Cotton, barley, and sugar-cane.

    B. Grain legume, wheat and cotton.

    C. wheat, barley and sugar-cane.

D wheat, sugar-cane and cotton.

10. _______ is the largest segment of the Australian economy.

     A. The primary industry.       B. The secondary industry.

     C. The tertiary industry.        D. The food-processing industry.

11. The largest manufacturing sector in Australia is

A. the ship-building industry.        B. the Australian aerospace industry.

C. the heavy engineering industry.    D. the Australian food-processing industry.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What is the main change in the last 50 years in Australia's economy? What are some of the major structural reforms and other policy changes that have contributed to the success of Australia's economy in the recent years?

2.       What are some of the significant natural resources in Australia?

3.       Discuss the distinct change in the pattern of Australia' s international trade in the last 25 years. What are the characteristics of Australia's export and import patterns? What role does the Australian government play in the trade?

4.       What are some of the major limiting factors in Australia for its primary industry? Have these limiting factors hindered Australia's development in the primary industry?

5.       The author believes that Australia has a dynamic economy. What accounts for this according to the author? Do you agree with the author? Do you think we can learn something from Australia's economic development?

 

Chapter 16  The Cultural and Social Life

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. There are two main types of school in each state and territory system. They are _______and_______. Tuition is free in _______ while most of the _______ charge fees.

2. Pupils who cannot attend schools because of illness, disability and residential isolation can take _______ In addition, students living in isolated places can attend _______to have the experience of "classroom".

3. Students can continue their education after secondary school in _______ as well as _______ where they can do _______, _______, _______and  _______studies.

   4. Though Australian arts can find their roots in _______, its own _______ and _______ , the influence of its _______ have all contributed to shape its distinctiveness.

   5. _______, the government funding agency for the arts, spends more than $50 million a year in support of specific art forms and central council programs.

   6. Henry Kendall, Australia's _______wrote about the_______.

   7. Henry Lawson was Australia's greatest _______, _______, _______ and _______. His short stories described the Australian's relationship with his _______.

   8. There are two national daily newspapers in Australia. They are _______, _______,_______ and _______ is the oldest newspaper in Australia.

   9. _______ is a non-commercial national radio and television service. _______ is its overseas service. The Special Broadcasting Service is a non-commercial _______radio and _______, _______ television service.

   10. _______ is the Australian media's leading source of overseas news.

   11. The only form of media censorship is the _______, which is observed by media proprietors on matters concerning _______.

   12. _______ is Australia's universal health-financing system. It gives all _______access to public hospital services. However, _______are not usually entitled to the benefits of the system.

   13. People living in isolated places can get medical help from _______ , which was started half a century ago. It gets findings from the _______ and _______ as well.

   14. Australia is widely recognized as the _______ in introducing_______ In 1909, it introduced _______

II. Choose the correct answer from each group:

    1. Schooling in Australia between the ages of 6 and 15 is

      A. free.

      B. expensive.

      C. compulsory.

      D. optional.

    2. Pupils who cannot go to school due to illness, disability and residential isolation

      A. have to be taught by their parents.

      B. have to teach themselves.

      C. cannot receive any form of education.

      D. can receive education by taking correspondence courses.

    3. TAFE is a form of

      A. primary education.

      B. secondary education.

      C. post-secondary education.

      D. private education.

    4. Which of the following writers established the early traditions of Australian writing?

      A. Henry Lawson                                                                                   

      B. Henry Kendall

      C. Joseph Furphy

D. Patrick White

5.  _______ is the oldest newspaper in Australia.

      A. The Sydney Morning Herald

      B. The Australian

      C. The Mercury

      D. The Australian Financial Review

6. The Special Broadcasting Service is a

      A. non-commercial, multilingual radio and multicultural television service.

      B. commercial, multilingual radio and multicultural television service

      C. commercial, national service

      D. non-commercial, multilingual radio service

7. Radio Australia is

      A. a domestic radio service in Australia

      B. an English-language international radio service

      C. the overseas service of the ABC

      D. the overseas service of the SBS

8. Which of the following organizations was started to provide medical help to people in remote and isolated places?

      A. The Red Cross Society

      B. Medicare

      C. The Royal Flying Doctor Service

      D. The National Health and Medical Research Council

  9. The aim of the National Campaign Against Drug Abuse is

    A. to ban the use of legal and illegal drugs.

    B. to ban the use of illegal drugs.

    C. to ban the use of illegal drugs among young people.

    D. to reduce the harm caused by the misuse of legal and illegal drugs.

 10. The sole parent pension is available to

    A. all single parents

    B. single people caring for children under 16 or recipients of the child disability allowance.

    C. single parents divorced with children under 16.

    B. divorced or widowed old women.

11. Which of the following is NOT a part of the Australian social security programs?

    A. Tertiary education assistance.

    B. Age pensions.

    C. Pensions for war and defense widows

    D. The child disability allowance.

III. Questions for Thought

1. Discuss the Australian education system. What are some of the features in the system that are specifically Australian?

2. Find out some examples from the text that demonstrate that Australian arts and literature have their roots in Europe. Discuss the impact of Australia's own history and culture on Australian arts and literature.

3.         What is Medicare in Australia? Find out those particularly Australian health care practices.

4. What are the main components of Australian social security programs? What do you think of Australia's social services and health care?

 

新西兰

Chapter 17  Land, People and History

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. New Zealand is in the _______ Ocean. _______ is its nearest neighbour. The _______ and the _______ are its two main land masses. They are separated by _______

  2. The famous thermal region is on the _______ , and the Southern Alps runs across the _______

  3. Seasons in New Zealand are opposite to the _______, with the highest temperature in _______ and _______ and the lowest temperature in _______.

  4. There had been no _______ except bats in New Zealand until about 1 000 years ago.         However, some remarkable species of flightless birds had occupied the land and some of them have survived to this day. Among them is _______, the bird that has given New Zealanders their name since it is the national symbol of the country.

  5. Major ethnic groups in New Zealand, in the order of population size, are_______, _______, _______ , Chinese and Indian people.

  6. The official languages in New Zealand are _______  and _______ .

  7. In 1893, New Zealand women were given the _______. New Zealand was the _______to grant it to women.

  8. In 1975, the _______ was set up to receive complaints from Maori people and to address the mistakes made in the past by the European settlers.

  9. The first settlers of New Zealand were from _______, the ancestors of today's Maori.

 10. In 1840, Maori chiefs signed the _______ to keep their ownership of the _______, and in return, to give up the fight to govern to the_______. This treaty is still a major issue in the relationship between Maori and Pakeha.

II. Choose the correct answer from each group:

     1. The two main land masses in New Zealand are

       A. the White Island and the thermal region.

       B. the North Island and the South Island.

       C. the Southern/kips and the North Island.

       D. Auckland and the South Island.

     2. New Zealanders have adopted their name from the kiwi,

       A. which is a native flightless bird

       B. which was the only mammal in New Zealand

       C. which was introduced to New Zealand about 1000 years ago

       D. which is an introduced flightless bird

     3. Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to New Zealand's environmental achievement?

        A. Favourable geographic features.

        B. Low population.

        C. A late development of industry.

        D. The ozone hole over Antarctica,

     4. New Zealand's three largest ethnic groups in terms of population are

A. New Zealanders with European ancestry, Chinese and Maori

        B. Maori, Indian and people from the Pacific Islands

        C. New Zealanders with European ancestry, Maori and people from the Pacific Islands

        D. People from the Pacific Islands, Maori and Chinese

     5. Which of the following statements is NOT true about Maori population?

        A. Maori women tend to have more children than non-Maori women.

        B. Non-Maori women tend to have children earlier than Maori women.

        C. Maori population is younger than the total population.

        D. Maofi population makes up nearly one-seventh of New Zealand's total population.

     6. The Maori word "Marae" means

        A. Maori culture   B. non-Maori or European   C. protocol   D. meeting house

     7. The trust settlers of New Zealand were

        A. voyagers from East Polynesia         B. European navigators

        C. sealers and whalers                 D. Christian missionaries

     8. In 1769,  __________ visited New Zealand and claimed it for Britain.

        A. Abel Tasman                B. James Cook 

 C. Christian missionaries         D. sealers and whalers

III. Questions for Thought

1. What are some of the distinct features of New Zealand's geography? Find out similarities and differences in terms of geography between New Zealand and Australia,

2. What are the structural components of New Zealand's population? In what way are they related to New Zealand's history?

3. Discuss the Maori culture in New Zealand. Is it similar with the Aboriginal culture in Australia?

4. When did the first European navigators arrive in New Zealand? How did New Zealand evolve to what it is today?

5. How has New Zealand avoided the air, water and land pollution problems of other industrialized countries?

 

Chapter 18  Political System, Education and Economy

I. Fill in the blanks:

    1. The Head of State of New Zealand is _______. She is represented in New Zealand by a _______ whose most important task is to call upon the leader of the _______ to form a government after an election.

    2. As an independent state, New Zealand is governed by an elected _______, which has only one chamber, _______

    3. The leader of the party in power is the _______ of the government. The Members of         Parliament who belong to the parties that are not in power are called the _______.

    4. _______are officials working in government departments and ministries whose appointments are independent of the political process.

5. Local government in New Zealand has three levels: _______,  and _______.

6. The largest school in New Zealand is the _______, which provides distance education for students who live in isolated places or who cannot attend school for medical or other reasons.

    7. New Zealand's largest polytechnic is the _______. It is also the largest education provider in New Zealand.

    8. New Zealand's _______ is one of the largest fishing areas in the world. The largest importers of New Zealand' s fishery products are _______, _______ and Australia.

    9. New Zealand's largest export markets are_______, _______, the European Union and_______

   10. New Zealand's major exports are meat, _______, wood, _______, _______ and fruit.

II Choose the correct answer from each group:

    1. The Head of State of New Zealand is _______

       A. the Prime Minister

       B. the Governor-General         

       C. the British monarch

       D. the Ombudsman

    2. Which of the following is NOT a function of parliament ?

       A. Enacting laws.

       B. Supervising the government's administration.

       C. The redress of grievances by receiving petitions.

       D. Forming a government.                   :  .

     3. Public servants are officials working in government departments

       A. whose appointments are independent of political process.

       B. whose appointments are determined by government ministers.

       C. who will lose their positions when the government changes.

       D. who are members of the party in power. 

     4. The three levels of local government are

       A. regional councils, District Courts and community boards

       B. the High Court, District Courts and Dispute Tribunals

       C. regional councils, territorial authorities and community boards

       D. regional councils, city councils and community boards

     5. Which of the following is NOT one of the major exports of New Zealand?

       A. Dairy products.

       B. Fish.

       C. Wool.

       D. Oil.                          

     6. Which of the following is NOT one of the major imports of New Zealand?

       A. Fruit.

       B. Machinery.

       C. Vehicles.                         

       D. Mineral fuels.

III. Questions for thought

  1. What are some of the similarities between New Zealand, Australia and Britain in the government system? What are some peculiar features in New Zealand's government system compared with Australia or Britain?

 2.  Discuss the characteristics of New Zealand's educational system.    .

 3.  Why does the author say that New Zealand s reputation as the world s largest farm has been hard-won? In what way is New Zealand' s agriculture similar with Australia?

 4. The author says that New Zealand lives by trade. Is the author justified by saying this? Is it true in Australia and Britain?

 

《英语国家社会与文化入门》(上册)

Chapter 1  American Beginnings

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. In 1782, the Frenchman who settled in Pennsylvania first asked the question "what is an American" in his book_______.

  2. The New World of America was peopled as a result of two long-continuing immigration movements, the fast one_______ from _______ and the second from _______ and _______.

  3. American Indians had developed three brilliant civilizations before the Europeans arrived. These three civilizations were _______, _______ and _______.

  4. Columbus discovered the New World in the year of ________

  5. The English king claimed the territory of North America based on the voyage of _______.

  6. _______ was the first to start the Religious Reformation and the next important leader of the Reformation was _______.

  7. The first permanent settlement in North America was established in today's _______ in the year of _______

  8. The crop. _______ that was transplanted from the West Indian saved Virginia.

  9. Lord Baltimore who set up the colony of _______ was _______ in religion.

 10. New England was founded by a group of religious believers called _______ while Pennsylvania was planted by _______ who was a _______ in religion.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

  1. Which of the following statements was correct around the time of the American Revolution?

    A. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans or their descendants.

    B. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans with American Indians.

    C. The American had the mixed blood of Europeans with blacks.

D. The American had the blood of the English and their descendants only.

2. Which of the following was NOT one of the three forces that led to the modern  development of Europe?

    A. The growth of capitalism.              

    B. The Renaissance.

    C. The Religious Reformation.

    D. The spiritual leadership of the Roman Catholic Church.

3. The following were the main Reformation leaders except

    A. Martin Luther.

    B. Martin Luther King.

    C. John Calvin.

D. The English King Henry VIII.

4. The following were some of the characteristics of Protestantism except

    A. challenging the authority of the Pope.

    B. salvation through faith.

    C. salvation through the church.

D. establishing a direct contact with God.

5. Which of the following American values did NOT come from Puritanism?

    A. separation of state and church.

    B. respect of education.

    C. intolerant moralism.

D. a sense of mission.

6. Lord Baltimore's feudal plan failed because

    A. there were more Protestant than Catholics in Maryland.

    B. the wilderness of the continent made the plan impossible.

    C. there was plenty of land while labor was scarce.

    D. the English king did not like the plan.

7. The following were the founding fathers of the American Republic except

    A. George Washington.

    B. Thomas Jefferson.

    C. William Penn.

D. Benjamin Franklin.

8. The theory of American politics and the American Revolution originated mainly from

     A. George Washington.

     B. Thomas Jefferson.

     C. John Adams.

D. John Locke

9. Which of the following was NOT a denomination of Protestantism?

     A. Catholics.

     B. Puritans.

     C. Quakers.

D. Church of England.

10. "No taxation without representation" was the rallying cry of

     A. the settlers of Virginia.

     B. the people of Pennsylvania.

     C. the colonists in New England.

     D. the people of the 13 colonies on the eve of the American Revolution.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What is an American? Comment on the answer to the question by Crevecoeur.

2.       How did modern development in Europe influence the settlement of North American colonies?

3.       What was the unique American phenomenon ? How did it come into being? Do you think it still exists in today's American society?

4.       In what way did Puritanism influence American culture?

5.       How is it that American development was characterized with capitalism from the very beginning? Why do you think the feudal system failed in early America?

6.       Comment on the Holy Experiment by William Penn.

7.       What were some of the causes of the American Revolution? Explain the Declaration of Independence.

 

Chapter 2  The Political System in the United States

I. Fill in the blanks:

   1. After the War of Independence was won, the national government was called _______, and the agreement that guided the government was _______.

   2. The city where the Declaration of Independence was signed and where the U.S. Constitution was made is _______.

   3. The Constitutional Convention was held in the year of _______ and the president of the Convention was _______.

   4. The Constitution set up a federal system with _______

   5. A federal system is one in which _______ is shared between _______and                _______with some rights reserved to each.

   6. The U.S. federal government consists of the following three branches: _______, _______ and _______

 7. The Congress is divided into _______ with _______ members who serve two-year terms, _______and _______ with lawmakers who serve six-year terms.

   8. Groups who try to persuade Congressmen to vote for or against a bill are known as _______

   9. The Supreme Court is composed of _______ chief justice and ~ associate justices.

II. Choose the correct answer of the following questions:

    1. Which of the following statements was NOT correct? When the War of Independence was over,

       A. each new state had its own government.

       B. each new state made its own laws and handled all of its internal affairs.

       C. the national government was called the Congress with little power.

       D. the relationships between the states and the national government were clearly

 defined.

2. According to the author, the Articles of Confederation failed because of the following reasons. Which is not true?

       A. The new states did not cooperate with the Congress or with each other.

       B. Some new states wanted to be free from the Union.

       C. The Congress could not raise money to pay the national army and to pay debts owed

to France and other nations.

       D. The Congress had no power to tax any citizen.

3. Which of the following states refused to participate in the Constitutional Convention?

       A. Virginia.

       B. Rhode Island.

       C. New York.

       D. Maryland.

    4. Which of the following statements was NOT correct? When the Constitution was written,

       A. there was a Bill of Rights in the Constitution.

       B. there was no Bill of Rights.

       C. The Constitution did not have any words guaranteeing the freedoms or the basic

rights and privileges of citizens.

       D. a "Bill of Rights" was added to the Constitution 4 years after the Constitution was

 made.

    5. Which of the following is the only branch that can make federal laws, and levy federal

 taxes?

       A. The executive.    B. The legislative.    C. The Judicial.    D. The president.

    6. Which of the following is NOT a power of the president?

      A. The president can veto any bill passed by Congress.

      B. The president has the authority to appoint federal judges when vacancies occur.

       C. The president can make laws.

         D. The president has broad powers, with the executive branch, to issue regulations and directives regarding the work of the federal departments.

     7. The Bill of Rights consists of

A. 10 very short paragraphs in an amendment.

B. 10 amendments adopted in 1787.

C. 10 amendments added to the Constitution in 1791.

D. the amendments concerning the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press and the freedom of religion.

      8. Which of the following is NOT guaranteed in the Bill of Rights?

         A. The freedom of religion.

         B. The freedom of searching a person's home by police.

         C. The freedom of speech and of the press.

         D. The right to own weapons if one wishes.

      9. The following were NOT written into the Constitution in 1787 except

         A. the Bill of Rights.

         B. the judicial review.

         C. the political party system

         D. the powers of the president.

     10. The New Deal was started by

        A. Franklin Roosevelt.

        B. J.F. Kennedy.

        C. George Washington.

        D. Thomas Jefferson.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Was it necessary to change the Articles of Confederation and write a new constitution for the new nation of the United States at the time?

2.       What is a federal system? What are some of the major differences between a federal system and a confederation?

3.       What are some of the major powers of each of the three branches of the U.S. government? How are the three branches supposed to check and balance each other?

4.       What is the Bill of Rights? Do you think that it was necessary to write the Bill of Rights explicitly into the U.S. Constitution?

5.       What are the two political parties in the United states? Do you think they are fundamentally different?

 

Chapter 3  American Economy

I. Fill in the blanks:

    1. The first Secretary of Treasury of the United States was _______.

    2. When starting a business or launching new ventures, money was needed. That money was known as _______

    3. One advantage of corporation over sole proprietorship and partnership is that it has _______so investors risked only the amount of their investment and not their entire assets.

    4. The best-known stock exchange is _______ located in _______ area of New York City.

    5. A great economist in the Industrial Revolution Era was an Englishman named _______.

    6. The Constitution of The United States bars all kinds of internal _______, so manufacturers do not have to worry about _______ when shipping goods from one part of the country to another.

    7. _______ and its related industries serve as the foundation of American economic life, accounting for a larger portion of the United States' GNP (_______ ) than any other endeavor.

    8. About one-third of the cropland in the United States is planted in crops destined for     _______ to Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Agricultural import lags far behind, leaving a _______ in the agricultural balance of trade.

    9. A period of economic difficulty began in the early 1980s. Agricultural exports _______partly due to the high value of the US dollar (which _______the cost of American products to foreign buyers.)

10. Another problem with agriculture is that critics accuse both corporate and family farmers of damaging the_______. Since the 1940s, American farmers have multiplied their use of _______ and _______designed to kill weeds and insect pest and to protect against crop diseases.

II. Choose the correct answer to the following questions:

   1. The first factory in the United States was a cotton textile mill in Pawtucket, in the state of

     A. New York      B. Rhode Island      C. Connecticut      D. Georgia

   2. The "American system" of mass production was first used in

     A. car industry      B. textile industry      C. firearms industry      D. agriculture

   3. The United States had the first standard paper currency in _______.

A. 1839           B. 1880        C. 1863         D. 1913

   4. The United States was rated No. 1 in terms of production capacity in the world _______.

      A. in 1920      B. in 1950      C. in 1945      D. in 1960

   5. Service industry does not include _________

      A. banking      B. management consultation      C. airline      D. steel making

   6. The United States was rated _______ in the world in terms of land area and the size of population.

      A. second      B. third      C. fourth      D. fifth

   7.  The United States produces as much as half of the world' s

      A. wheat and rice  B. cotton   C. tobacco and vegetable oil   D. soybeans and corn

   8. Institutional factors that contributed to the success of American business and industry include

      A. laissez-faire  B. bountiful resources  C. vast dimensions  D. entrepreneurial spirit

   9.  _______ have extolled the virtues of farmers.

      A. Thomas Jefferson   B. Alexander Hamilton    C. Adam Smith  D. Eli Whitney

  10. The latest technology that farmers have adopted is

     A. artificial fertilizers     B. pesticide     C. tractors     D. computers

III. Questions for Thought

1. Do you agree that "cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens"? Give your reasons.

2. It is known to all that buying and selling stocks is a risky business. Why do you think there are still so many people involved in it?

3. Give examples of industries which are declining, and industries which are fast developing in the United States.

 

Chapter 4  Religiond States

I. Fill in the blanks:

   1. "WASP, stands for _______.

   2. The Great Awakening of the 1740s tried to breathe new Feeling and strength into religion, and cut across the lines of

   3. According to John Locke, the right to govern comes from an agreement or _______ voluntarily entered into by free people.

   4. _______ believes that reason teaches that God exists but leaves man free to settle his own affairs.

   5. The majority of the Catholics in the U.S. are descendants of immigrants from _______, _______ and Poland.

   6. Prayer and Bible reading in public schools in the U.S. are _______.

   7. The Three Faiths in the U.S. refer to _______, _________ and _______

   8. According to the text, in England, _______ percent of the people except Catholics go to church less than once a month; in Sweden _______go to church at all. Yet _______of American Protestants are active church members.

   9. Freedom of religious belief or non-belief is provided in the _______in the U.S. Constitution.

   10. The first Catholic president in the U.S. was _______ _______.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

    1. Which of the following was NOT a Protestant denomination?

A. The Baptists.             B. The Catholics.

C. The Methodists.          D. The Presbyterians.

    2. Which of the following is unconstitutional in the United States?

      A. Catholics can build their own schools and hospitals.

      B. Non-Catholics can go to Catholic-run schools.

      C. Public money is provided to support religious schools.

      D. Women have the right to abortion.

    3. Which of the following is NOT regarded as one of the three basic religious beliefs?

      A. Protestant.      B. Catholic.      C. Islamic.      D. Judaism.

    4. Which of the following is true?

      A. Many Catholics are not opposed to abortion.

      B. Many evangelical Protestants do not object to abortion.

      C. Orthodox Jews are for abortion.

      D. Liberal Protestants and Jews join non-believers in maintaining that abortion is a basic

right for women.

    5. Which of the following continues to have an all-male clergy?

      A. The Catholic Church.

      B. The Protestant Episcopal Church.

      C. The United Methodist Church.

D. Jewish Congregations.

6. The following are distinctively American features of religion except

      A. Various religious groups have coexisted in the U.S. more harmoniously than Europe.

      B. Scientific and economic advance and material prosperity have not been accompanied

by a decline in religious faith.

      C. There has been little concentration on doctrine or religion argument in the U. S.

      D. There has been very much concentration on doctrine or religious argument in the U.S.

7. In the United States, people go to church mainly for the following reasons except

      A. for finding a job in society.

      B. for having a place in a community.

      C. for identifying themselves with dominant values.

D. for getting together with friends.

8. Which of the following statements is NOT correct according to the author?

      A. American mainstream culture is based on Protestantism.

      B. Protestant Church is an established church by law in the U.S.

      C. The Catholic Church is the largest single religious group in the U.S.

      D. The largest church is of the Protestant faith in the U.S.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       In what way do you think that religious freedom was a historical necessity in the United States?

2.       What is the relationship between government and religion in America?

3.       What promotes the diversity in American religion?

4.       What are some of the features in religion that are particularly American? What are some of the major differences between American religion and religion in Europe?

 

Chapter 5  American Literature

I. Fill in the blanks:

    1. _______ and _______ are the two major writers of the post-Revolutionary period.

    2.  "The Masque of the Red Death" and "The Fall of the House of Usher" were stories Written by _______.

    3. In 1852, a New England woman named Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a novel titled_______, which intensified the political debate on slavery.

    4. Mark Twain's _______ is considered the greatest novel in American literature.

    5. Henry James' major works include _______ and _______. His works often described Americans living in _______.

    6. Upton Sinclair's novel _______exposed the horrible lives of meat-packing factory workers.

    7. Ezra Pound's poetry is famous for _______, the use of strong, concrete images.

    8. T.S. Eliot's long poem _______ revealed a pessimistic view of post-World War I society. He dominated the so-called _______movement in poetry.

    9. After World War I, many novelists produced literary works of disillusionment. Some of them lived abroad and were known as the" _______"

   10. F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel _______was about youth's golden dream turning to disappointment.

   11. Name three novels written by Ernest Hemingway: _______, _______ and _______.

   12.  Thee Sound and the Fury was written by _________, whose prose style was experimental.

   13. Name two plays written by Eugene O'Neill: _______ and _______.

   14. John Steinbeck' s The Grapes of Wrath was a portrait of a poor family during the period of _______.

   15. Richard Wright wrote the novel _______, and Ralph Ellison wrote the novel _______.Both were _______ writers.

   16. The representative work of the "Beat Generation" was Alan Ginsberg's poem _______.

   17. _______ won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993, the first Afro-American writer to receive this honor. Two of her best novels are _______ and _______.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

    1. Which of the following was a writer of the post-Revolutionary period?

    A. Edgar Allan Poe    B. Natty Bumppo

    C. Washington Irving   D. Rip Van Winkle

2. Which of the following is considered an American masterpiece?

      A. The Last of the Mohicans      B. The Legend of the Sleepy Hollow

      C. "The Masque of the Red Death"  D. Moby Dick

3. Which of the following was written by Thoreau?

      A. Nature    B. Walden    C. The Scarlet Letter  D. The Fall of the House of Usher

4. Whitman's poetry has the following characteristics except

      A. fragmented haunting images      B. long irregular lines

      C. celebrating the American spirit    D. free-flowing structure

5. Mark Twain's works are characterized by the following except

      A. sense of humor      B. egotism      C. jokes      D. tall tales

    6. Three of the following are characteristics of Emily Dickinson' s poems. Which one is not?

      A. Her poems mix gaiety and gloom.

      B. Her verses are filled with the names of faraway, exotic places.

      C. Her poems are very long and powerful.

D. Her poems show that she was fascinated by both life and death.

7. _______ was mainly interested in writing about Americans living in Europe.

      A. Henry James    B. Mark Twain    C. William Dean Howells  D. Stephen Crane

8. _______ is NOT included in the group of naturalists.

      A. Sherwood Anderson

      B. Stephen Crane

      C. Jack London

D. Theodore Dreiser

9. Three of the following authors are Nobel Prize winners. Which one is not.

A. Ernest Hemingway

B. Eugene O'Neill

C. William Faulkner

D. F. Scott Fitzgerald

10.  _______ does NOT belong to the "Lost Generation".

A. John Dos Passos

B. Ernest Hemingway

C. F. Scott Fitzgerald

D. John Steinbeck

11. _______ was NOT written by Hemingway.

      A. Light in August

      B. The Sun Also Rises

      C. A Farewell to Arms

      D. For Whom the Bell Tolls

   12. Which of the following is NOT a black author?

      A. Richard Wright

      B. Alan Ginsberg

      C. James Baldwin

      D. Ralph Ellison

   13. The following authors were women writers who wrote novels in the late 19th and early 20th century with the exception of________

       A. Emily Dickinson

       B. Edith Wharton

       C. Willa Cather

       D. Kate Chopin                           

14. The following writers represent new American voices except.

 A. Toni Morrison

 B. Alice Walker

 C. T. S. Eliot

 D. Maxine Hong Kingston

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What is the main theme in American literature according to the author? How does the author illustrate his point?

2.       What theories does Ralph Emerson explain in his essays? Why are they so influential?

3.       Why is Walt Whitman considered one of the most important poets in America?

4.       Why did Mark Twain win so many readers both at home and abroad?

5.       What are some of the major themes in novels written by the "Lost Generation" ?

 

Chapter 6  Education in the United States

I. Fill in the blanks:

    1.  About ________.percent of American students go to ________ schools and _________ percent attend private schools.

    2. The Puritans introduced _________ education for all children and public taxation for________ in the 17th century.                                          I

    3. The goal of education in the United States is to achieve universal __ and provide  individuals with________ and ________necessary to promote the welfare for individuals and the general public.

    4. Every state in America has its own laws about  ________and all states require young people to. ________. Thus, every child in America is guaranteed up to ________ years of education.

    5. Every year more than ________ million students graduate from secondary schools, only about ________ million students go on for________.

    6. Public and private colleges depend on three sources of income: ________, endowments and ________

    7.  Some colleges in America are small and others are large. A small one has fewer than ________students, but a large university has a total enrollment of ________ students.

    8. After earning a certain number of credits (about 120) in four years of college, the undergraduate student gets a_______ degree. The other two higher degrees are________ and ________.

    9. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act promised to give financial aid to ________ after the end of World War II.

   10. Some of the programs to equalize educational opportunities for all groups were

called________

   11. About 25% of all schools of higher education in America are privately operated by ________.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

    1.  Which of the following subjects are NOT offered to elementary school students?

        A. Mathematics and languages.

        B. Politics and business education.

        C. Science and social studies.

        D. Music and physical education.

    2. The expenditure in American public schools is guided or decided by __

        A. teachers                        B. students

        C. headmasters                     D. boards of education

    3. In the United States school systems, which of the following divisions is true?

       A. Elementary school, grammar school.

       B. Elementary school, junior high school.

       C. Elementary school, secondary school.

       D. Junior high school, senior high school,

    4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in American higher education?

       A. Universities and colleges

       B. Research institutions

       C. Technical institutions

       D. Undergraduate institutions

    5. Three of the following factors have contributed to the flourishing of large universities in America, which is the exception?

 A. Large universities offer the best libraries and facilities for scientific research.

 B. Large universities provide students with "mainframe" computers.

 C. Large universities offer scholarships to all students.

 D. Large universities attract students with modem laboratories.

    6. Nearly all students want to get into more desirable institutions because________

       A. they find it easy for them to get jobs after having graduated from one of them

       B. they enjoy the high prestige of these institutions

       C. they like the teachers and surroundings in these institutions   

       D. they prefer to have the Scholastic Aptitude Tests

7. In order to go to university, secondary school students must meet the following

requirements except that

        A. they have high School records and recommendations from their teachers

        B. they make good impressions during the interviews

        C. they get good scores in the Scholastic Aptitude Tests

        D. they pass the college entrance examinations                       ..

    8. Three of the following universities have large endowments from wealthy benefactors. Which is the exception?

        A. Harvard University

        B. the State University of New York

        C. Yale University

        D. Princeton University

    9. Both public and private universities depend on the following sources of income except

        A. investment                    B. student tuition

        B. endowments                   D. government funding

    10. To get a bachelor’s degree, an undergraduate student is required to do the following except

         A. attending lectures and complete assignments

         B. passing examinations

         C. taking certain subjects such as history, language and philosophy

         D. earning a certain number of credits at the end of the four years at college

III. Questions for Thought

   1. What is the goal of education in the United States? Discuss the similarities and differences in Great Britain, the United States and China concerning the goals of education.

   2. How did American education begin to develop?

   3. What do you think some of the characteristics in education that are particularly American?

 

Chapter 7  Social Movements of the 1960s

I. Fill in the following blanks:

1. On February 1, 1960, 4 black students from a black college in ________ , North Carolina, began their protest against the racial segregation laws by such tactics as ________, thus beginning the civil rights movement.

2. The civil rights movement, together with ________ and ________during the 1960s had been deeply rooted in U.S. history.

  3. Those who worked in the civil rights movement included________ , black and white young

people, and_______  ________ and some housewives.

  4. When the civil rights movement began, ________direct action tactics like________                  "and were used to protest segregation laws. Later, anti-war activists added to educate people about the war in Vietnam.

  5. According to a professor of history, all social movements have two basic characteristics : ________  and  ________

  6. The spontaneous action of nonviolent civil disobedience of ________, was believed to be the true beginning of the civil rights movement.

  7. The strongest leadership of the civil rights movement came from the ________ , the other being________ and ________

  8. In the summer of 1963, hundreds of thousands of peaceful demonstrators marched to Washington, D.C., where ________ gave the famous  ________ speech.

  9. Contrary to King's nonviolent tactics________ spoke in favor of black separatism and against nonviolence in fighting racial discrimination.

  10. In 1964, ________ signed into law the Civil Rights Act passed by Congress to improve the racial relations.

II. Choose the correct answer to the following questions:

  1. Black Americans sang the anthem of the civil rights movement," ________ " affirming their

commitment to fight racial prejudice.

    A. "Let it all hang out."           B. "Hell, no, we won't go."

    C. "We Shall Overcome"          D. "Speak your heart without interruption"

2. The most notorious terrorist group against black civil rights workers in the South was known as ,

A. the Black Muslims   B. Federal Bureau of Investigation

C. Student for A Democratic Society    D. Ku Klux Klan

3. The reason why many young people were involved in the social movements of the 1960s was that

A. they resented traditional white male values in U.S. society

B. they love America so much

C. they thought they knew better than their teachers

D. they viewed the adult world with grave doubt

4. In addition to such tactics as sit-ins, young students also added________ to educate people about the war in Vietnam.

A. teach-in   B. rock 'n' roll music   C. class boycott     D. "march against fear"

5. According to the author, three civil rights groups provided the leadership, the tactics, and the people to fight against Southern segregation. Which is the exception?

A. the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

B. the Congress of Racial Equality

C. the Southern Christian Leadership Conference

D. the Student for a Democratic Society

6. A historic moment of the civil rights movement was the March on Washington of August 28,1963 when delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.

    A. John F. Kennedy       B. President Johnson

    C. Martin Luther King,Jr.   D. Mario Savio

7. In January 1965, President Johnson declared to eliminate poverty "by opening to everyone the opportunity to live in decency and dignity."

    A. war against Vietnam    B. war against poverty

C. war against Japan      D. New Frontier program

8. Unlike Martin Luther King, ________ the chief spokesperson of Black Muslims advocated violence in self defense and black pride.

    A. Malcolm X    B. Stokeley Carmichael    C. Ella Baker    D. James Farmer

9. During the early stages of the civil rights movement, the major integration strategy initiated by the Congress of Racial Equality was known as to integrate interstate buses and bus stations in the South.

A. free speech    B. sit-ins at lunch counters

C. teach-ins at interstate train stations          D. freedom rides

  10. Due to his firm belief in nonviolent peaceful protest in the spirit of India's leader Gandhi,.              was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

    A. John F. Kennedy   B. James Farmer   C. Ella Baker   D. Martin Luther King, Jr.

  11. The one group within the counter culture best known for their pursuit of happiness as their

only goal in life was called

    A. the "Hippies"          B. the "Beat Generation"

C. the "Me Generation"         D. the "Lost Generation"

  12. In the 1960s, feminism was reborn. Many women were dissatisfied with their lives, and in 1963, with the publication of ________ by  ________ , they found a voice"

     A. The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan

     B. Profiles in Courage, John F. Kennedy

     C. The Other America, Michael Harrington

     D. Catcher in the Rye, J. D.Salinger

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What were the major social movements of the 1960s? And what was the historical background of the social movements of that decade?

2.       Who were the participants of the social movements of the 1960s?

3.       What are the basic characteristics of a social movement?

4.       The black political movement that began as a force for integration changed course in the mid-1960s and began to emphasize black uniqueness and even black separatism. What caused this transformation?

5.       Draw analogies between the black revolution and the women's movement. What common assumptions do they share?

6.       What are the legacies of the social movements of the 1960s? What are their effects, positive and negative, upon contemporary U.S. society?

 

Chapter 8  Social Problems in the United States

I. Fill in the blank:                                                                                           

 1. American society is a stratified one in which ________, ________, and ________are unequally distributed among the population.

 2. The largest of the racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is ________ who make up

about________ percent of the population.

 3. Former President ________said that crime is America's "number one enemy."

 4. Name two of the illegal acts by the FBI: ________ and ________.

 5. Name two of the illegal acts by the CIA: ________and ________.

 6. The dominant group in American society that has taken control of economic assets and political power from the beginning of the nation is________.

 7. American slavery was finally abolished by________, ________ and ________.

 8. After the abolition of slavery, many states ________to keep the races apart in schools, housing, restaurants and public facilities, and kept blacks in the lowest-paid jobs.

 9. Those arrested for crimes are disproportionately likely to be ________, ________, and a________ city resident.

10.  ________ had tested variety of drugs, including LSD, on many people who were unaware that they were being used as ________ and had caused several deaths in the process.

II Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

   1. Which of the following is NOT true ?

     A. Slavery was mainly in the South.

     B. Racial discrimination existed throughout the United States in American history.

     C. Racial segregation after the Civil War existed only in the South.

     D. Racial segregation existed throughout the U. S. after the Civil War.

   2. Three of the following changes among many, blacks took place after the 1960s. Which of them is NOT true?

     A. Blacks felt more and more confident that they would be fully integrated into the mainstream of American life.

     B. Blacks felt that the black community ought to coexist with other groups.

     C. Blacks felt that ',black is beautiful."

     D. Blacks felt more and more proud of themselves.

 3. In the 1970s, although the income Of the black family increased greatly, the total

 black-white income gap was widened. Which of the .following was the main factor

contributing to this situation?

     A. More white families moved into high-paying jobs,

     B. Blacks had low positions and low pay in the workplace hierarchy.

     C. There were more children in black families.

     D. White families had increased their authority over others.

    4. Three of the following factors contribute to the higher arrest rates among minority groups. Which is the exception?

      A. The aggressive nature of these groups.

      B. Racial prejudice against them.

      C. Low social status of these groups.

      D. Poverty and unemployment among minority groups.

   5. Which of the following does NOT belong to the white-collar crime?

      A. bribery

      B. tax evasion

      C. false advertising

      D. robbery

 6. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

     A. The Northern states had outlawed slavery by 1830.

     B. Slavery was finally abolished in the South in 1865.

     C. The Northern states did not have racial discrimination.

     D. Segregation laws continued to be enforced in Southern states until the 1950s.

   7. Drug abuse in the United States is a social problem because it has a wide range of social costs. Which of the following is NOT a dysfunction caused by drug abuse ?

     A. There is a strong association between drug use and crime.

     B. Drug dependence takes a significant toll in terms of personal health and safety.

     C. Drug abuse is a major cause of unemployment.

     D. There are great economic losses because of drug abuse.

  8. If white-collar crimes were included in the Crime Index and if authorities were more vigorous in their enforcement of law, the profile of a typical criminal in the United States would be

     A. older

     B. wealthier

     C. whiter

D. living near city centers

9. Which of the following used human beings as guinea pigs to test drugs including LSD ?

     A. The FBI.

     B. The CIA.

     C. Congress.

     D. Richard Nixon.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       The author says that the United States was founded on the principle of human equality, but in practice the nation has fallen far short of that ideal. Illustrate this point with what you have learned from this book.

2.       Use examples from this text to support the author's argument that American society is a stratified one, in which power, wealth and prestige are unequally distributed among the population.

3.       Discuss the origins, development and current situation of the black-white relations in the United States.

4.       What does poverty mean in the United States ? Why is poverty a social problem in America?

5.       Why does the drug issue always excite the strong emotion among Americans? Why is it perceived as a major threat to American society ?

6.       Why is crime "the number one enemy" in the United States ?

7.       What is the profile of a typical criminal according to the reports by the FBI? Why is it so ? If the white-collar crime is included, and if the authorities are more vigorous in their enforcement of law, what changes will take place in the profile of a typical criminal ? Why? Pick up some examples from the text to show how the government and corporations have abused power in the United States.

 

Chapter 9  Technology in America

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1 ". The invention of the ________ by  ________made it possible to obtain higher profits from  agriculture. US agriculture was moving away from subsistence fanning towards a food marketing enterprise.

  2. The ________ family made significant contribution in the history of transportation.

  3. The inventor of the telegraph codes was________.

  4. Before telegraph was invented, ________ was used in the Wild West for transmitting messages.

  5. Among the things that Thomas Alva Edison invented are: electric bulb ________and ________ circuit.

  6. According to the theory of James Clerk Maxwell, light and sound Were ________, which

could be transmitted over the distance. This was the basis for the invention of________.

  7. In the post World War I age, commercial radio served many functions. In the countryside,

radio provided ________ and  ________; For the urban newcomers, the radio served to

connect them with neighbors; Radio was also beginning to become a chief media

for________ for consumer goods.

  8. Name some household inventions in the mid-20th century which led to easier life for housewives: ________,

  9. The central part of a computer where the transistors are incorporated together with no

wiring is called

  10. When computer was fast invented, it was mainly meant for ________; Few people realized that today the  most widespread use of PC would be for ________                 and ________

 II Choose the correct answer to each of the following:

   1. According to the author, the person who was to be credited with developing the "American system of production" in the early nineteenth century was

    A. Eli Whitney        B. John H Hall        C. Thomas Edison   D. Henry Ford

   2. Cyrus H McCormick invented.

      A. the electric bulb     B. the revolver    C, the mechanical reaper  D. the railroad

   3.  ________ led to the end of the Pony Express System.

      A. Telephone        B. Telegraph        C. Railroad        D. Steamboat

   4.  ________ had the title "the Wizard of Menlo Park".

A. Thomas A Edison     B. John Stevens     C. Charlie Chaplin   D. Robert Fulton

   5.  ________ contributed to the development of the American system of manufacture in the

twentieth century.

     A. James K Maxwell    B. Cyrus H McCormick   C. Lee De Forest   D. Henry Ford

   6, When was voice and music first transmitted over the radio?

     A. 1901   B. end of 19th century  C. New Year's Eve 1905  D. Christmas Eve 1905

   7. When did the first commercial radio station began broadcasting?

     A. 1910     B, 1920      C, 1930      D. 1916

   8. Which of the following invention facilitated the out-migration - movement into suburban locations?

      A. automobile   B. electric lawn mower   C. mechanical reaper   D. telephone

   9. Which invention marked the beginning of "The Age of Visual Information"?

      A. newspaper      B. telegraph     C. laundry machine    D. television

   10. ________ made the first desktop PC.

      A. Bill Gates                         B. IBM

    C. Two young amateur inventors         D. Apple Computers

   11. ________ made the first liquid propellant rocket.

A. Robert H Goddard      B. Nazi Germany

C. J. Robert Oppenheimer  D. US military

   12. ________ invented the telephone.

      A. Samuel F.B.Morse        B. Alexander Graham Bell

      C. Thomas Alva Edison      D. Reginald Fessenden

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What role does technology play in our lives? Does it only provide new conveniences or does it sometimes change our life style? Give examples from the text to illustrate your ideas.

2.       What do you think is the greatest invention so far? Why?

3.       Why does the author emphasize that the invention of one technology has to be supported by a number of related technologies which form a supporting system? Give examples.

4.       Why are solitary, possibly eccentric inventors being replaced by research teams? Is it still possible for an individual to come up with significant invention?

 

Chapter 10  Scenic America

I. Fill in the blanks:

1. The Grand Canyon is carved away for nearly 6 million years by the waters of the ________River.

2. Within the Painted Desert National Park, there is ________, a field of fallen trees that have turned to stone by a process of materialization known as petrifaction.

3. The Hoover Dam was named after President ________

4. Yosemite National Park has a spectacular scenery of valleys carved out by

5. America's movies are mostly made in________, near the city of ________in South California.

6. Stretching south of Miami is a chain of islands called the ________. The farthest island is ________, which is a favorite resort for US President Harry Truman, and the site of home of  novelist

7. Visitors to Charleston should not overlook Fort Sumter National Park, as this was the site of ________the first battle in April 1861.

      8. Nashville, TN might be an interesting city to many visitors because of the ________ home to country folk music, sometimes balled  ~

      9. ________in New Jersey used to be a quiet town; but now it is the site of legalized gambling.

      10. The enormous peninsula shaped like a flexed arm that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean is called ________.

      11. The name of the boat taking visitors to the very base of the Niagara Fails is ________.

     II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following:

          1. The main mountain range in the west of US stretching from the Canadian border to New Mexico is

               A. the Appalachian Mountains        B. the Rocky Mountains

               C. the Green Mountains             D. the Blue Ridge Mountains

          2. The State of California is on..

       A. the Atlantic Coast        B. the Gulf of Mexico

       C. the Pacific Coast         D. Caribbean Sea

3. ________ has vestiges of old Southern plantations.

       A. New Orleans   B. San Francisco  C. Los Angeles    D. San Diego

4. One of the oldest towns (landed in 1513) in the US is___________.

       A. New York      B. Boston       C. Philadelphia    D. St Augustine

5. The Granite State in the US is___________.

       A. New Hampshire  B. New York State  C. Pennsylvania  D. Florida

6 .________ was twice the site of Winter Olympics.

       A. Schroon Lake     B. Lake Placid     C. Atlanta      D. Washington, D.C.

III. Questions for Thought

 1. After reading this chapter, which of the places mentioned in the text do you want to visit most? Why?

 2. List what you consider to be the ten most interesting places to visit in China.

 

Chapter 11  Sports in America

I. Fill in the blanks:

 1. The two conferences for American football are AFC, which stands for________and ________ NFC, which stands for ________.

 2. In playing football, the team having possession of the ball is the ________ whose objective

is to advance the ball over the ________ 's goal line.

 3. When defensive players try to stop the player with the ball, this is called ________/

 4. When either team calls for a stop, this is called________

 5. ________may still be the great American game, even though it is also popular in other countries.

 6. Demolition of the color barrier began with the hiring of the first superb black athlete ________ by Brooklyn Dodgers manager ________.

 7. In baseball game, the pitcher-- the person throwing the ball -- is from the ________         team, and the person who attempts to hit the ball is the ________; the offensive team is the team.

 8. In basketball game, the time within which a team has to score is called ________.

 9. The leading player of Boston Celtics is ________ and the leading player of Los Angeles Lakers is ________.

10. There are two divisions in National Basketball Association, ________and ________.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

    1.  O.J.Simpson used to be a well-known athlete who plays

        A. football        B. basketball       C. baseball      D. handball

    2.  ________ can be watched in a more relaxed and lazy way.

        A. football        B. basketball        C. baseball     D. handball

    3. Ronald Reagan used to be a

      A. basketball player                   B. sports radio announcer

      C. conservative political columnist       D. sports writer

    4. In playing basketball, when the player bounces the ball on the floor as he moves around the court, this is called

      A. pass    B. walk    C. steal    D. dribble

5. In playing basketball, misbehavior or unsportsmanlike acdorts may result in

A. time out    B. overtime    C. technical foul    D. foul

6. Which of the following is not a team game?

      A. volleyball    B. bowling    C. soccer    D. field hockey

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Why do you think a lot of people love sports? In what way do sports reflect American culture? Compare your opinion with the author's comment

2.       Football, baseball, and basketball are the three most popular sports in the US. Are they popular in China? Why/Why not?

3.       What types of sports are Chinese athletes good at? Why?

4.       Comment on the role of television in sports competition. Do you like to watch a match via television at home or would you prefer to watch in the stadium?

 

Chapter 12  Early Amrican Jazz

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Jazz music, as a musical form, initially performed and appreciated by________

  2. The reasons why jazz music becomes generally accepted by people from all walks of life are 1) ________, 2) ________

  3. It was in ________, that a new combination of________, blended together in the form known as________, a clear contribution from the ________ of ________

  4. Early jazz was identified by its ________ brought over to America by________

  6. In jazz, drums also contributed to the ________of the ensemble, e.g. in the drumming of the famous drummer________ one can hear the ________

  7. Not only did jazz bands play dance music, marches, they also played ________, which is a type of strutting dance, ________and_________

  8. In the early 1920's, jazz music flourished in two American cities, one in ________, and New York, which had its ________ jazz musicians in the Afro-American district called________.

  9. Before he joined Joe Oliver's orchestra is Chicago, Louis Armstrong was already such a great player that he acquired the nickname __________

  10. During the 1920's the famous Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, who began her career in ________  dominated the U.S. blues scene.

II. Choose the correct answer in each of the following questions:

   1. According to the author, jazz music gains acceptance in all classes in American society because of the following reasons. Which is the exception?

      A. It initially appealed to the young and rebellious.

      B. Jazz musicians worked Indian American music into the music.

      C. Jazz music was made modified and became more refined.

      D. Both A and C.

    2. According to the author, a defining mark of the early New Orleans jazz was

      A. a group of musicians improvised their notes without the constraints of an agreed upon melody.

      B. individual player was encouraged to play like every other in a jazz band.

      C. Jazz musicians are required to have a highly developed musical sense and to be familiar with the musical thinking of one's companions.

      D. an ensemble of musicians improvising their notes in changing chords around a specific melodic line.

    3. ________ is NOT included in the "front line" of the jazz ensemble.

       A. A trumpet     B. A clarinet     C. A piano     D. A trombone

    4. The complex drumming in the rhythm section of early jazz music was brought over to America by

      A. Spanish missionaries from Europe.   B. Black slaves from West Africa.

      C. British colonists from Asia.         D. the Creole from the West India.

    5. Blues was derived from a blend of field chantey and spiritual which is

      A. a form of rock 'n' roll singing popular among American teenagers.

      B. a form of operatic singing originated from Southern European countries.

      C. a form of country music singing.

      D. a form of hymn singing prevalent in African-American Christian churches.

    6. Recording groups such as the Hot Five and the Hot Seven organized by Louis Armstrong made a series of recordings which represent

      A. the origin of the Chicago style jazz.   B. the influence of New Orleans style jazz.

      C. the beginning of the New York style jazz.    D. the impact of ragtime music.

    7. Primarily employed in taverns and houses of pleasure, the piano was used

      A. for establishing rhythm section.         B. for sounding out melodies.

      C. for accompanying blues singing in the Southern part of the United States.

      D. for announcing the melodies in addition to establishing a rhythm.

    8. In the 1920' s. a new, distinctive style of piano playing called 'stride' piano emerged in

      A. in Harlem in New York.         B. in San Francisco in California.

      C. in Chicago in Illinois.           D. in Nashville, Tennessee.

    9. The first popular ragtime tune was

A.     "Maple Leaf Rag" by Scott Joplin in 1896.

B.      "Handful of keys" by Fats Waller in 1929.

      C. "A Monday Date" by Earl Hines in 1928.

      D. "The Sheik of Araby" by Albert Ammons in the 1930s.                                                                                                                     

   10. The tradition of the vocal ballad which contributed to the blues form was usually accompanied by

      A. a guitar.        B. a piano.       C. a banjo.     D. a trombone and a cymbal.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Why did a musical form of black origin gain acceptance in all classes in America and spread throughout the country?

2.       Why was music, jazz music in particular, an important part of the lives of African-Americans at the end of the 19th century?

3.       What are the major differences and similarities between the New Orleans style jazz and that of Chicago style?

4.       What is ragtime music? What are the similarities between ragtime and Boogie and Woogie music ?

5.       What are the contributions made by Louis Armstrong to the early jazz music ?6. In what way does Jazz music reflect American culture?

 

加拿大

Chapter 13  The Country and Its People

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. In area, Canada is the ________ country on earth.

  2. Canada is quite a new country, it first became a political entity in ________ when four provinces joined together.

  3. Canada's motto is that the country stretches ________, with the ________ Ocean along the west coast and the Ocean on the east coast.

  4. Canada and the United States have good relations, and they share the longest________ in the world.

  5. Canada consists of __________ provinces and ________territories.

  6. In the north of Canada, during the height of summer the sun does not set, therefore it is sometimes called________

  7. The north region is currently divided into two administrative territories: the ________ and the ________ Territories.

  8. The western-most province in Canada is BC --________.

  9. The ________ are Canada's breadbasket while Ontario and Quebec are actually the________ of the country.

  10. The capital of Canada is ________ and the second largest city is________.

  11. The first major European settlements were established in ________in 1604 and  ________ in 1608.

  12. During earlier settlements, the French set up ________and Britain founded                 to facilitate trade.                                    .

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

     1. Along which parallel do most Canadians live, according to the author?

       A. the 39th         B. the 49th         C. the 59th        D. the 69th

     2. Which of the following about the north region is NOT true?

       A. The north is a scarcely populated area of ice and oceans.

       B. Most of the inhabitants are Aboriginal people.

       C. In 1999, there will be three administrative territories here.

       D. People in this region depend only on arts and crafts for living.

     3. Where is Lake Louise located?

       A. In the northern part of Canada.

       B. On the Canadian-American border.

       C. On the east coast.

       D. In the Rockies.

     4. What is the economic mainstay of British Columbia?

       A. the forestry industry

       B. the hydroelectric industry

       C. mining industry

       D. manufacturing industry

     5. Which of the following is NOT one of the prairie provinces?

       A. Alberta

       B. Saskatchewan

       C. New Brunswick

       D. Manitoba

     6. Which of the following provinces was the last one to join Canada in 1949?

       A. Nova Scotia

       B. Newfoundland

       C. Ontario

       D. British Columbia

     7. Who first came and settled Canada?

       A. British colonists

       B. French colonists

       C. American colonists

       D. Spanish colonists

     8. Which of the following was NOT one of the provinces that joined a confederation in 1867?

        A. Ontario

        B. Quebec

        C. New Brunswick

        D. British Columbia

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Why Canada is regularly rated as having the best standard of living in the world?

2.       What will usually spring to mind while mentioning the country?

 

Chapter 14  The Government and Politics of Canada

I. Fill in the blanks:

                                                                                                   1. Canada preferred to establish a nation based on ________.

2. Canada's political system was greatly influenced by the two major foreign forces: ________and ________

  3. The great difference between Canada and Britain is that Canada consists of ________ and________ territories.

  4. Most of the Canadian population is concentrated in ________and________ which have the          most ________ and therefore have the most power in ________

  5. Canada's system of government was based on the British system of________. The Canadian Parliament is divided into a lower house named ________ and an upper house called________

  6. The official head of Canada is ________. As she doesn't live in Canada, she is represented by an official called ________

7. The Reform Party has its great support in ________ provinces, but has very little influence in Canada. In the 1997 election, it became the country's ________opposition party by winning enough seats in the parliament.

  8. Through most of the 20th century, the federal government of Canada has been governed by________ either or by________

  9. Maloney made many important contributions to Canada. During his time of office, he introduced ________Act and signed a free trade agreement with________.

 10. Pierre Trudeau came from ________ province and could speak ________as well as ________. He made great efforts to bring ________ and ________Canada close together by promoting the use of French throughout Canada.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

   1. Who is the most influential person in the Canadian government?

A. the Queen    B. a Cabinet Minister

C. the Prime Minister   D. the Governor General

   2. Which of the following parties represents the most interests of Quebec?

      A. the Bloc Quebecois               B. the Progressive Party

      C. the Liberal Party                D. the Reform Party

   3. The three influential Canadian Prime Ministers have a lot of things in common. Which of the following is the exception?

      A. They came from Quebec and could speak French as fluently as English.

B. They were educated as lawyers.

C. They shared the vision of a strong, united Canada and worked hard to overcome the regionalism of the country.

      D. They belong to the same political party.

   4. Which of the following is true?

     A. The Queen is the official head of state.

     B. She is a member of the Cabinet.

     C. She is a symbol of parliamentary democracy.

     D. She is a symbol of Canada.

   5. Which of the following provinces are densely populated in Canada?

     A. Saskatchewan and Ontario

     B. Ontario and Quebec

     C. Manitoba and Saskatchewan

     D. Quebec and Manitoba

   6. Which of the following is NOT correct?

     A. The Senate is controlled by the House of Commons.

     B. The Senate is not elected.

     C. The Senate is recommended by the Prime Minister.

     D. The Senate is appointed by the Governor General.

   7. Which of the following political parties does Brian Mulroney belong to?

     A. the Progressive Conservatives      C. the Liberal Party

     B. the Bloc Quebecois              D. the Reform Party                      

8. Pierre Trudeau was regarded as an important Prime Minister in Canada because of the    following reasons except

     A. He took the steps necessary to make Canada completely independent of Britain.

     B. He signed a free trade agreement with the United States.

C. He introduced some important programs to promote the use of French throughout

Canada.

     D. He worked very hard to bring French and English Canada closer together.

   9. Which of the following provinces is the home of most French-speaking people in Canada?

      A. Manitoba      C. Saskatchewan        B. Ontario       D. Quebec

   10. The Progressive Conservative Party was completely wiped out in the 1993 federal election because

      A. they offended the French-speaking people in Canada.

      B. they governed the entire country for too many years.

      C. they had bad management of the economy.

      D. they were unable to represent the country as a whole.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Discuss the similarities and differences in the government systems between the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.

2.       What are some of the characteristics of the Canadian party system?

3.       What are some of the things that make Canada a unique and interesting country?                           

4.       Why do you think the author says that Canada has avoided the worst excesses of intolerance and prejudice?    

 

Chapter 15  The Canadian Mosaic

I. Fill in the blanks:

 1.  Many people use the notion that American society is a ________ while Canada is described as ________a

 2.  Multiculturalism has caused something of a problem in that Canadians often feel they lack a ________

 3. The life-styles of the people who inhabited Canada's coasts depended on and ________;________ those who lived on the prairies were________ that hunted herds of buffalo; in the central and eastern Canada, the First Nations grew ________ as well as hunted.

  4. Generally speaking, the ________ people are still, as a group, Canada's poorest inhabitants.

  5. The policies which brought settlers to Canada were always based on ________considerations.

  6. ________ has the second largest Chinese community in North America, after ________.

  7. The Immigration Act 1976 created a new category of ________.

  8. The racist attitudes to immigration and the purely economic concerns that have informed immigration policy make Canada look ________ rather than ________.

  9. Canada has also been criticized because it was more willing to help refugees fleeing ________ regimes than  ________ ones.

  10. In the story about a Canadian, the man's first name, Kenji, is a________ name; his middle name, Abram and last name, Dyck, are  ________ names.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following.

1. What is the other official language besides English in Canada?

  A. German      B. Japanese        C. French        D. Finnish

2. Around the beginning of 20th century, Chinese laborers came to Canada to

A. work as farmers and miners    B. build the railroad

C. do fur trade                 D. open shops

3. Which of the following would the Canadian policy-makers thought that would fit easily into

 Canada?

  A. Britons         B. Japanese         C. Ukrainians         D. Mexicans

4. According to the text, when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour in 1941, who considered the Japanese population in the west coast of North America a potential security threat?

  A. the federal government of Canada   B. the local governments in Canada

  C. the United Nations               D. Amnesty International

5. In Vancouver schools, it is estimated that more than half of the students speak

  A. English       B. French       C. Mandarin Chinese    D. Cantonese

6. By 1985, how many per cent of immigrants were non-European?

  A. 30 per cent    B. 80 per cent    C. 60 per cent    D. 50 per cent

7. During the Second World War, the Japanese settlers in Canada were forced to move

  A. to east of Rocky Mountains    B. back to Japan

  C. to Pearl Harbor              D. to the east coast

III. Questions for Thought

1.       How do you understand "multiculturalism"? What is the advantage of living in a multicultural society? Do you think there is multiculturalism in China?

2.       Give your comment on Canada's practical economic approach to immigration. Is it natural that people tend to accept more readily those who fit more easily into their society?

3.       Why is immigration an explosive political issue?

 

Chapter 16  The Canadian Economy

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. Industry in Canada can be divided into three main groups: natural resources (________); manufacturing (________); and service (.________) industries. In 1990, the primary sector, including________,  ________, forestry and ________ accounted for l0 per cent of Canada's Gross Domestic Product. Secondary industries, including manufacturing. ________transport and ________ , made up 36 per cent of GDP; and the ________ sector of trade, ________ , services and public administration, accounted for nearly 54 per cent of GDP.

  2. Canada's first Prime Minister, ________, launched a national economic plan to develop________ and a ________ industry.

  3. Industries in which the processing of raw materials makes them more valuable are________ industries.

  4. In the 1960s, Canada and US jointly signed the ________, which was an agreement ensuring freer trade in cars.

  5. In 1980, the Canadian government brought in the ________ , a controversial move to         seize control of the country's energy industry.

  6. It remains uncertain as to whether in the long term, embracing close economic relations with the US will lead to a serious ________ of Canada's economic, and therefore political and cultural ________.

  7. In 1947, major oil and natural gas reserves were discovered in the western, mainly agricultural province of ________.

  8. In terms of very advanced technology, Canada has provided a robotic arm (the________) to space shuttle.

  9. Members of the Group of 7 include ________, ________ , ________ , ________ , ________ , ________ , _________, ________,.   

I0. Canada is involved in developing the Chinese ________ industry.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

    1. Which of the following industries account for more than half of the GDP in Canada?

      A. primary industries          B. secondary industries

      C. tertiary industries           D. none of them

    2. When did Canada begin to develop a stronger service and manufacturing sector?

      A. at the beginning of the 20th century

      B. in the 1930s

      C. at the end of World War II

      D. in the 1960s

    3. What was the "Third Option" of the Trudeau government?

      A. using a floating exchange rate

      B. imposing export tax on shipments to the US

      C. developing freer trade with the US

      D. developing stronger trading relations with Japan and Europe

    4. Canada began negotiating with the US on dismantling tariff barriers under the government of

      A. Brian Mulroney

      B. John Macdonald

      C. Pierre Elliott Trudeau

      D. the incumbent government

    5. Which of the following was not discussed in the FTA?

      A. agricultural products

      B. energy supplies

      C. cars

      D. beer

    6. Which of the following provinces is the manufacturing heartland of Canada?

      A. Alberta

      B. Ontario

      C. British Columbia

      D. Quebec

   7. At present, which of the following areas has the largest farms iti Canada?

     A. the western provinces

     B. the eastern provinces

     C. British Columbia

     D. the prairie provinces

   8. Which of the following belongs to tertiary industry?

     A. paper making

     B. telecommunications

     C. banking

     D. clothes-making

III. Questions for Thought

1.       In what way does Canada's geographic size and location affect its economy?

2.       Comment on the sentence "As is the case in other industrialized countries, more Canadians now provide services than make things".

3.       Do you think the Canadian government should subsidize the inefficient Canadian farmers or import foodstuff from neighboring American states?

4.       How do you view the future of freer trade among nations in the world? Will this result in diminishing of national identity and sovereignty?

 

Chapter 17  Canadian Literature

I. Fill in the blanks:

     1. In Canadian literature Margaret Atwood sees a very common concern with the idea of ________ and she says that this idea represents the central symbol of Canadian literature.

     2.  Many tales of the Native myths explain the first ________ of the world and people.

     3. Books of early colonial literature often took the wilderness or ________as their subjects.

     4. Quebec's difficult relationship with the ________ process is seen in William Kirby's novel The Golden Dog (1877).

     5. Ted Allan's The Scalpel, the Sword is a biography of a doctor called________

     6. The relationship between French and English Canada was most famously the subject of Hugh McLennan’s novel ________.

     7. Margaret Laurence is highly representative of contemporary Canada with its emphasis

on________

     8. ________ is the most successful and internationally recognized of current Canadian novelists.

     9. Michael Ondaatje is best known for his novel ________, set in the countries around the Mediterranean during World War II.

10. Farley Mowat's exciting books initiate many Canadians into the idea that life is a struggle to________

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

   1. Who suggests that the idea of survival can be seen as the central symbol of Canadian literature?

      A. Margaret Laurence               B. Margaret Atwood

      C. Michael Ondaatje                D. Ted Allan

   2. Cultural survival is shown in the following ways except:

     A. the attempt to maintain a Canadian identity

     B. persistence of native Canadian people to maintain their distinctive cultures

     C. dealing with the harsh natural environment

     D. the survival of a French-Canadian identity in Quebec after the English had conquered the French in Quebec

   3. Which of the following authors did NOT belong to the period of nation- building?

     A. Susanna Moodie                  B. William Kirby

     C. Robert Service                    D. Duncan Campbell Scott

   4. Who wrote the book The Scalpel, The Sword?

     A. F.R. Scott    B. Norman Bethune    C. Ted Allan    D. Mordecai Richler

   5. "Triple alliance" in Jean-Charles Harvey's novel refer to the following except:

     A. capitalists    B. politicians      C. church       D. French separatism

   6. In which period have Canada's most famous and successful writers appeared?

     A. post-war period                 B. period of nation-building

     C. early colonial period             D. pre-European period

   7. What idea is most powerfully presented in Margaret Laurence's work, making her highly representative of contemporary Canada?

      A. self-analysis  B. women's position  C. cultural difference  D. political environment

    8. Which of the following novels was made into an extremely successful film in 1997?

      A. Lost in the Barrens               B. The Two Solitudes

      C. The Handmaid's Tale              D. The English Patient

III. Questions for Thought

1.       Why is the idea of survival thought of as the central symbol of Canadian literature? What does cultural survival mean in Canadian literature?

2.       What makes Margaret Laurence highly representative of contemporary Canada?

 

Chapter 18  Canada’s International Relations

I. Fill in the blanks:

  1. According to the author, it was Canada that "invented" the concept of ________and convinced the world to put pressure on South Africa's ________ policies.

  2. As a member of the Commonwealth, Canada used to unquestioningly assist  ________ in its foreign policy.

  3. When Britain lost its status as a world power after World War II, Canada became a junior partner helping ________global interests particularly during the Cold War.

  4. To promote peace and cooperation among nations, Canada plays an active role in international organizations like the United Nations, the Commonwealth, and. ________.

  5. To ensure its national security, Canada participates in alliances, most notably, ________that links Canadian security to security in Europe.

  6. Former Canadian Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier used to refer to the two world wars in which Canada was involved in terms of" ________ ".

  7. According to the author, it was  ________ Canada's best-known world leader, who worked epically hard to make Canadian foreign policy distinctive from that of the U.S.

  8. To follow its own independent foreign policy agenda, the Canadian government recognized________ in 1969.

  9. The Canada-American relationship is unique in the sense that they are two of the most ________ and ________societies in the world.

 10. As is noted, aid became an important part of Canadian foreign policy, thus both Pearson and Trudeau pressed hard ________for ________, and ________to make humanitarian development assistance the top of aid programs.

II. Choose the correct answer to each of the following questions:

   1. In more recent years, partly through Canadian diplomatic efforts, things like________

and________ have been put on the international agenda.

     A. arms control, human rights

     B. land mines, poverty

     C. organized crime, drug smuggling

     D. women’ issues, the environment

   2. When Britain lost its status as a world power after World War II, Canada became a junior

partner helping global interests.

      A. Indian         B. Australian      C. American      D. Soviet Russian

   3. Since the north is mainly unpopulated, the Canadian government, at one point, asked the

________to patrol the area.

      A. the Americans            B. the local Inuit hunters with skidoos

      C. the Nato allies            D. the ANZUS                                  

     4. To promote peace and cooperation among nations, Canada played an active role in the following international organizations. Which is the exception?

        A. the United Nations                      B. the Commonwealth

        C. the National Organization of Women       D. La Francophonie

     5. In 1988, Canada established with ________ the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to help________facilitate economic integration, and later joined the group.

       A. the United States, Mexico           B. Australia, New Zealand

       C. Great Britain, France               D. Norway, Mexico

     6. On the evidence of the past, Canada used to be so reluctant to get involved in European squabbles that one prime minister even referred to the two world wars as "the vortex of European militarism". Who made the remarks?

        A. Prime Minister Lester Pearson       B. Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier

        C. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau       D. Prime Minister Brian Mulroney

    7.  In 1917, the Canadian government introduced conscription, which resulted in bitter resentment in the French speaking province. Which of the following is the correct name ?

        A. British Columbia    B. Nova Skotia     C. Antario       D. Quebec

    8.  According to the author, Canada entered into its golden age of international diplomacy in the 1950s, the period of which was capped by

        A. Canada's role in the Suez Crisis of 1956

        B. Canada's role in the World Trade Organization

        C. Canada's role in the NATO

        D. Canada's role in World Health Organization

    9. Who was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts made to introduce a UN peacekeeping force into the Suez Canal region during the Crisis of 1956?

        A. Brian Mulroney     B. Pierre Trudeau      C. John Holms   D. Lester Pearson

   10. Whose administration worked especially hard for the international recognition of the People's Republic of China ?

       A. Wilfred Laurier's administration          B. Lester Pearson's administration

       C. MacKinzie King's administration         D. Brian Mulroney's administration

   11. The Canada-U.S. relations are so close that Prime Minister Louis St Laurent once said that it was like

      A. a relationship between two teammates.      B. a relationship between two brothers.

      C. a relationship between two business partners.  D. a relationship between two farmers.

   12. One of the historic reasons that leads Canada to empathising with the problems the Third World countries face on their way to independence is:

      A. its colonial past.            B. its imperialist past.

      C. its feudal history.           D. its socialist-oriented economy.

III. Questions for Thought

1.       What sort of role does Canada play in international affairs? And what is the major influence on Canada's participation in the international system?

2.       What are the major reasons for Canada's active role in international organizations?

3.       When did Canada emerge as a middle power in international affairs?

4.       What is so unique about Canadian-American relations?

5.       And what are the effects of American culture upon Canadian culture? Is Canada justified guarding against American cultural infiltration ?